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Earthquake News, 5

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最新人员死伤数字
截至5月28日12时,四川汶川地震已造成68,109人遇难,364,552人受伤,失踪19,851人。紧急转移安置15,006,341人,累计受灾人数45,612,765人。

泰晤士报:中国总理惊人的坦诚

  四川强地震后不久,中国总理温家宝邀请了一些外国记者前往灾区采访,他在现场向记者们介绍:“过去,这是一处非常美丽的山谷,是熊猫生活的地方。”现在,背后的映秀中学成了一堆废墟,教室严重倾斜,一层压着一层。英国《泰晤士报》就此发表评论説:这样的开放程度在中国是闻所未闻的;温总理的坦诚程度让世人吃惊。
  这是中国这个新崛起的超级大国展现在世人面前的一张面孔,这张面孔正凝视着他上方的山坡。由于地震引发山体滑坡,森林遭到严重破坏,许多地方被泥土和石块掩盖。身处最接近震中的镇子,他感受到了大自然的力量和身边发生的这幕悲剧的可怕程度,并深受震撼。
  中国总理温家宝所指的方向,被小山遮挡住的是一处公墓。映秀镇原本人口在13000人左右,如今,地震中遇难的大约8600人就葬在这里。
  这是他第二次来到地震破坏的现场,不过他的客人、联合国秘书长潘基文是第一次来。温家宝显然决定将拘谨的外交礼节抛在一边。
  这次,温家宝做出了前所未有的举动,他邀请了一些外国记者同行。一行人乘坐军用直升机抵达灾区,这样的开放程度在中国闻所未闻。飞机上的空军驾驶员惊讶不已。
  飞机降落在这处狭窄的山谷,几分钟后,总理就想举行临时记者招待会。通常,总理每年与如此众多的外国媒体见一次面,在一年一度的两会结束后。然而,自从中国现代最具破坏性的一次地震于5月12日袭击了这处山区后,温家宝处处让人吃惊。
  他渴望与海外记者对话。总理对平时可以接触到他的中国记者说:“让外国记者问个问题。”为了答完问题,他甚至让潘基文等了几分钟。
  他的回答也异乎寻常的坦诚。温家宝向记者们透露,地震死亡人数现在已经增加到62000人,最终可能会高达8万人,甚至更多。他说,中国现在面临着三大挑战:防止出现疫情,为500万无家可归的灾民提供避难所,以及解决35处堰塞湖构成的险情。他说,决不能在这次大灾之后,再出现一次重大的灾难。
  温家宝展现出的领导风格让世界钦佩。
  他利用潘基文来访的契机,表达了中国对国际社会给予的同情和援助的感激。他说:“这不只是中国人民的灾害,也是全人类的灾害。”他说中国会永远坚持奉行透明政策。
  温家宝穿着一件起皱的深蓝色夹克,地震发生仅两个小时后,他赶到灾区时,穿的就是这件衣服。他表情严肃,皱着眉头。正是这种关切的神情,让他赢得了全国人民的支持,并且鼓舞、安慰着幸存者。
  灾区的所有人,哪怕是失去孩子的父母,或者是仍在寻找亲人遗体的人,都在讲着这样的话:“温总理给了我们希望。”

中国军警为何可以不带枪械执勤救灾?

  这次四川大地震,人民生命财产损失惨重,也暴露了中国很多问题。不过,抗灾过程也显示了一些让西方世界惊异的中国社会之美。很突出的一点就是,中国军警不怕牺牲,全力救灾;军队和武警都不携带任何枪械武器,徒手或只带工具进入灾区。相比之下,美国无论是卡特琳娜飓风还是洛杉矶地震等大灾后,美军和国民警卫队都是荷枪实弹,全副武装,开着装甲车,进入灾区如同战区,结果是,军警主要只是维护灾区的秩序,起不了多少救灾的作用。
  海内外多数华人对此习以为常,不加评论。然而西方军政当局和媒体,还是感觉震惊。在他们看来,一支主要从事国内武力镇压的军警部队,双手沾满6.4大学生,新疆东土,还有前不久的藏民的鲜血,就是武装进入川西民族地区,也可能被各族民众缴械,痛打,何况徒手呢?
  旅美多年的阮次山先生,以其职业媒体人的敏感,对此有过评论。其实这个问题在山哥的心里也缠绕了很长时间。
  十多年前,我到澳洲不久,一件当地新闻令人震惊。一名澳洲男子带着女友超速行车,被两名执勤的男女警察拦住停车,男子显然喝了些酒,在女友面前也牛气得很,竟下车挥舞手中猎枪对警察吼叫,结果被那对男女警察同时开火击中数枪,当即丧命。其女友控告警察过度使用武力,致人性命。尽管调查发现死者猎枪是空枪,那对男女警察还是被无罪释放。理由是警察无法知道是空枪,有必要先发制人来自卫。
  以后山哥注意到,西方国家的警察,包括校警,多数都配枪执勤。这样,刚从6.4阴影下走出来的我,又陷入了对西方军警的恐惧。每当碰到这些配枪的阿舍们,心里都有些发毛。
  中国军警为何可以不带枪械执勤救灾?
  仔细想想,其实很简单。中国政府和军队,拥有至高无上的权威,民众没有枪械武器,一般不可能威胁军警人员生命;面临大灾难,民众依靠政府和军队,由衷地感激军警官兵的救助。
  反观西方社会特别是美国,民众拥有大量武器,确实可以威胁军警生命;民众认为政府救灾理所应当,没有感激之情,只有不周到的怨恨。军警带枪,自卫之必需也。
  中国社会,能否保持和发扬这种和谐之美?

我羞愧地离开灾区

  广西新闻网—南国早报 2008-06-01 22:29:33
  5月28日,又一批外地记者赶到了黑水;29日上午,我在出门的楼梯上,又意外地碰到了一名刚赶到黑水的某市报记者……在越来越多的人想方设法赶往灾区时,我却毅然决然地选择离开“见面”仅3天的黑水。
  灾区人民有的失去了亲人,有的失去了家园,他们确实很需要社会各界的帮助和支持,但他们被震碎的心灵再也经不起任何形式的打扰。
  这不是我个人独有的想法。赴黑水慰问灾民的自治区工作组早已做出了榜样:他们5月27日中午时分才赶到黑水,在完成工作后又于当天下午马不停蹄地往回赶。其中一位建设厅的领导说:不能给灾区增加任何负担,救灾要多做实际工作,他要赶到绵竹去督战,他的队伍正在那里救援……

我为灾区忙,却要更多人为我忙
  5月27日,我满怀着帮助灾区人民的愿望,来到汶川特大地震的重灾区之一——黑水县,展开对其受灾、救灾情况的采访。可这种心情并没持续多久,我很快就发现,我想为灾区帮忙,却需要更多的人为我而忙碌。
  麻窝乡瓦扎小学教学楼已损坏,学校师生都已放假,但村干部仍坚持升国旗。
  黑水县的救灾任务很重,各级各部门的领导都非常忙,都有许多重要的事情要做。但为了配合一批又一批记者采访,他们不得不放下手中的工作,帮助联系解决各种采访事宜,不得不陪同我们去采访;采访需要车辆,而我们又没有车,虽然县里的车辆很有限,救灾的工作又多,但还是挤出抗震救灾车,送我们去采访;乡、村干部为了我们采访的需要,只得改变原来的工作计划,临时准备好救灾物资给灾民送去;灾民也停下手中的事情,手忙脚乱地迎接上级领导和我们的到来……
  县里这么多人在为我而忙,可我为灾区做了什么?给灾民带去了什么?我常常对此感到茫然。我不得不为我耽误了灾区领导和灾民的时间、占用了县里的救灾资源而深感自责。只有离开,才能终止这种耽误。
  有些灾区为客人所做的还远远不止这些。有的县派警车为客人开道、引路,有的县领导带车队到两地接界处迎送客人,有的县还要安排他们的吃住行……
  如果我们不能为灾区帮上什么忙,那么,我们是不是可以少去,最好不去,这也是对灾区的一种支持。

“对不起,给你们添麻烦了”
  在黑水的3天里,许多事情让我感动得泪流满面,同时又让我羞愧得无地自容。
  几天来,我先后来到芦花镇竹格多村、谷汝村,石碉楼乡木须村、扎基村,麻窝乡瓦扎村等多个村子采访。虽然房子倒了,但看到来了客人,藏民们还得擦干眼泪,为我们斟上青稞酒,一定要我们喝一碗;几户藏民一起搜出家里的核桃,凑满一盘,一定要我们尝几个;虽然他们的心灵受到了极大的创伤,但为了我们的采访,他们又不得不一再讲述地震发生时的那一刻、房子倒塌的那一刻、亲人失去的那一刻;虽然住在临时搭建的简易棚子里,盖着从废墟里挖出的棉被,但藏民们仍然发自内心地对每个前来的人不停地说些感恩的话语,做些感恩的动作;虽然他们自己也缺衣少吃,但得知我们下午1时多还没吃中饭,藏民们拿出刚出锅的烙饼,让我们充饥……
  而我们却给他们留下了一堆待洗的碗、一地待清理的垃圾。这样的情景,在有的村庄,已经不止一次上演。
  我知道,对土地极其缺乏、且一亩地只能产一两百公斤青稞的藏民来说,这些食品是多么的珍贵。我也知道,对于靠到几公里外的山底背水解决饮水问题的藏民来说,要清洗一堆碗的工作量有多大。但我不能拒绝藏民们的热情和善意,我只能在接受每一项服务时,都非常真诚地说一句:“对不起,给你们添麻烦了。”
  我还知道,在有的地方,因为一批又一批外地记者前去采访,灾民不得不许多次重复同样的讲述。汶川政府还设立了记者救助站,为盲目进入灾区采访而出现生活困难的各地记者提供帮助。这无形中增加了当地政府的负担。

你了解灾民的真正需要吗?
  提出这个问题,缘于我在黑水经历的两件小事。
  5月28日,我来到海拔3000多米的麻窝乡瓦扎小学,查看校舍受损情况。我意外地发现,在学校门口放着两件矿泉水,因为下雨,包装袋上还沾上了一些泥巴。村干部见我们来了,马上打开包装袋,为我们每人递上一瓶矿泉水。
  我感到很奇怪,问村干部这些水是从哪来的。村干部也不隐瞒,说是外界支援灾区的救灾物资,虽然村里的水源并没受到污染,根本不需要矿泉水,但这份爱心不能拒绝,所以只能背上山来,哪怕用来招待客人也好。
  5月29日,我在芦花镇谷汝村采访时,村干部面对一箱煤油炉犯愁,不知如何处理是好。他说,藏民们都是烧柴煮饭的,根本用不上这种炉子,而且这里连煤油也不知道上哪买。但这些都是外界支援的救灾物资,他们不能拒绝,也不能说三道四。
  显然,这是支援单位不了解灾区的实际情况,不了解灾民的真正需要所造成的尴尬。
  芦花镇一名干部对我说,救灾物资与灾民需求不相配的情况,在灾区不是个例。他们镇里很多房子倒了或成了严重危房,需要帐篷临时居住,但至今只得到了两顶帐篷,很多灾民只能住在搭建的简易棚子里。地震后,一些房子成了危房,但没有经过专家的评估,时间长了,有的村民因缺少帐篷又搬进去住,结果余震一震,又发生新的伤亡。镇里急需房屋安全评估,但目前还没有这方面的专家来支援。
  救灾,应该首先帮助灾民解决最迫切的问题,满足最迫切的需要。要做到这一点,就应该在开展救灾工作时,先了解一下灾民最缺的是什么,真正需要的是什么。
  广西对口支援黑水后,首先派出工作组去实地查看灾情,了解灾区亟需解决的问题。当得知黑水极缺帐篷的困难后,有关部门想方设法组织帐篷去支援,并想到了回收旧帐篷的办法,尽一切可能为灾区提供帐篷,把救灾工作做到了灾民的心坎上。5月31日,广西公安边防总队又将300顶帐篷运到了黑水。

先想好能为灾区做什么再出发
  在灾区的这段时间,我每天都接到一些电话,有问我灾区受灾情况的,有问我在灾区怕不怕的,有问我采访灾区感受的,当然更多的人想告诉我,他们也想到灾区来。
  我有一个朋友,说要来黑水帮灾民建房子。我问他黑水的房子是用什么材料建的、是建在什么地方的、材料是怎么运输的,他却茫然无知。
  我告诉他,黑水县农民的房子大多建在海拔2800多米的半山上,都是用石头、木头和泥巴砌成的石木房,通往灾区的是一条陡峭的机耕道,只有装半吨货物的小拖拉机才能通行。我说,你如果这些情况都不了解就盲目赶来的话,还真帮不上灾民什么忙,只能增加灾区的负担。
  记者了解到,目前,国内各地许多人都想支援灾区,都想到灾区去,但有些人并不知道自己去灾区的具体目的,也不知道具体能为灾区做些什么。殊不知,到灾区去是要吃要喝要住的,而且现在灾区脆弱的公路已经非常繁忙,每一个人的到来,都会增加灾区的负担。
  救灾是一个较长的过程,需要实实在在的帮忙、做事,不要凑热闹式、作秀式地一哄而上。对此,四川省有关部门曾发出请广大志愿者“慎入川”的呼吁。
  而广西赴川的青年志愿者充分考虑了后勤保障问题,他们自带大量粮食和饮水,自己做饭菜保障志愿者生活,还服务附近的灾民和其他救灾官兵,不给当地政府添麻烦。多为灾区人民做实事,不给灾区人民添负担,这也是所有心系灾区的人的共同心愿。

Dior drops Sharon Stone after quake comments By Clifford Coonan in Beijing (Friday, 30 May 2008)

  Sharon Stone used to be a great ad for fewer wrinkles, but the 50-year-old’s outburst linking the Sichuan earthquake to bad karma because of China’s policy on Tibet means Christian Dior posters are coming down all over the Chinese capital.
  The French fashion house has issued an apology for Stone’s comments and pulled her from its Chinese ad campaign for anti-ageing products. And in good time, it appears, given that the Xinhua news agency has described Stone as “the public enemy of all mankind”.
  Stone is reasonably popular in China, having appeared at the Shanghai Film Festival last year, and she was well received for her comments about life and love, as well as her praise for China’s ancient civilisation. At the same time, the face-cream saleswoman did cause consternation for accusing people of being skin-deep in their thinking about wrinkles. But that was nothing compared to the bad karma comments.
  Stone said she was “deeply sorry” for causing anguish and anger among Chinese people for her candid, ill-judged remarks about China’s worst natural disaster in three decades. So far, the Sichuan earthquake has killed about 70,000 people and left five million homeless.
  ”My erroneous words and deeds angered and saddened the Chinese people, and I sincerely apologise for this,” the Basic Instinct star said in a statement issued by Dior China. “I am willing to take part in the relief work of China’s earthquake and wholly devote myself to helping affected Chinese people.”
  It has to be said that her words were astoundingly ill-timed. Stone made her comments at Cannes, linking the recent disaster to China’s treatment of Tibetans during anti-Chinese riots in March. The storm of indignation in the Chinese media is reminiscent of the anger in China when protesters tried to stop the Olympic torch passing through Western cities amid a wave of protest at China’s crackdown on Tibet.
Even the exiled Tibetan spiritual leader, the Dalai Lama, has praised the Chinese response to the quake, prayed for the victims and called for a suspension of protests against China as relief efforts continue.
  The Beijing government is currently enjoying a wave of popularity, at home and abroad, because of the decisive way the Communist Party handled the earthquake and for its openness in allowing foreign aid into China. World leaders, including Gordon Brown, have described China’s response as “magnificent”.
  The Chinese acting elite has also condemned Stone’s remarks. “This actress does not deserve our attention. The best way is to ignore her. I will never watch her films in future,” said Liu Wei, who is best known for Zhou Yu’s Train. Another actor, known in the West as a star of the hit film Lost In Beijing, said: “The earthquake is not only China’s disaster but a disaster for all of mankind. Sharon Stone’s performance shows that not only does she lack love, but she lacks humanity! How could she say such things?”
  The Chinese foreign ministry merely said: “We hope that as an actress she should contribute to our two people’s mutual trust, understanding and friendship.”

  (For those few people in the world who haven’t yet heard: Sharon Stone gave an interview. In Cannes. And spoke about the Chinese earthquake. You know, the one that left more than 67,000 people dead? And she blamed it all on karma…yes, karma. No we don’t get it either. — The Gutter Sniper). Here’s what she said:

“Well you know it was very interesting becasuse at first I’m not happy about the way the Chinese are treating the Tibetans because I don’t think anyone should be unkind to anyone else. And so I’ve been very concerned about how to think and what to do. And I’ve been very concerned about the olympics and how to deal with that, because they’re not being nice to the Dalai Lama who’s a good friend of mine and then all this earthquake and all this stuff happned, and then I thought: is that karma? When you’re not nice that the bad things happen to you?”

  Ok, so – first thought: Uh oh Tom Cruise aint gonna be happy! Someone’s just replaced him as Hollywood’s resident extremist.
  No, but seriously this interview throws up some interesting questions. Like, firstly: who is this woman and why is she famous again? To which there is really only one answer – namely, that she is Sharon Stone and she is famous for that camera angle in Basic Instinct. Remember? And also: What? she’s friends with the Dalai Lama? Really? Is that friends friends or facebook friends?

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Comments

Among the 68,000 confirmed death, more than 10,000 were children. Several Tibetan villages in Sichuan province were also destroyed by the earthquake. To use the word “interesting”, or “Karma” to describe this nature disaster, the person has to be either cold blooded, or a complete idiot, or both.
Posted by: Duch Thursday, 29 May 2008 at 10:35 PM
Her body is sensitive; her mind is senseless. 80,000 Chinese died at the quake. She can sense the pain of the Chinese people who lost their homes, children, parents, or spouse. Did her friend Dalai Lama teach her this?
Posted by: Larry P Thursday, 29 May 2008 at 10:35 PM
It has shaken the world to see the suffering in China/Tibet and Burma. Her words will haunt her for the rest of her life if not the spirits of those who were killed. May they all rest in peace. My heart goes out to her adopted children God help them to have a mother like her!
Posted by: Julie de Souza Thursday, 29 May 2008 at 11:02 PM
Sharon Stone may know His Holiness, and she may have converted to Buddhism, but she’s not learned the first two Buddhist Precepts yet:-
1, Actions have consequences,
2: The consequences are always greater than the action.
Well, your getting yours now honey!
Posted by: Ron H Friday, 30 May 2008 at 12:49 AM
Time for her to go into rehab.
Posted by: Bo Friday, 30 May 2008 at 01:06 AM
The problem is that the media empowers public figures who offer nothing insightful, new, helpful, etc. just because they are in the movies or music industry or whatever. A thousand ignorant hicks will say the same thing and be dismissed, but because Sharon “didn’t realize” where the camera was pointing in Basic Instinct we have to hear her crap?
If you are a celebrity, unless you have an advanced degree in political science, international relations, or anything else even tangentially related to the issue, please shut your pie hole.
Posted by: Mike Friday, 30 May 2008 at 03:11 AM
Lol, what karma, the epicenter of Sichuan earthquake is located in Aba Tibetan Prefecture, Sharon’s stony Karma comment is exactly a sound slap on “her friend’s face”.
Posted by: Miky Friday, 30 May 2008 at 03:33 PM
A HOLLYWOOD HICCUP? This was said with some aforethought, just not much of it.
America is looking to improve its image around the world, and this is not the kind of help it needs. http://pacificgatepost.blogspot.com/2008/05/hollywood-polishing-americas-image.html
Posted by: PacificGatePost Friday, 30 May 2008 at 05:53 PM
The earthquake happens in a poor region of China. A lot of victims are Buddhists and many are superstitious. They are innocent people and they are suffering deep. To the victims, karma implies the reason that they suffer is because they did sinful things in their previous life, and they will go to hell in their next life. Instead of providing psychological supports, Sharon Stone is putting the salts into the deep wounds of the earthquake victims. By saying those words, she is showing that she is anything but a reasonable human being. Posted by: annemasse1 Saturday, 31 May 2008 at 02:17 PM
The earthquake happens in a poor region of China. A lot of victims are Buddhists and many are superstitious. They are innocent people and they are suffering deep. To the victims, karma implies the reason that they suffer is because they did sinful things in their previous life, and they will go to hell in their next life. Instead of providing psychological supports, Sharon Stone is putting the salts into the deep wounds of the earthquake victims. By saying those words, she is showing that she is anything but a reasonable human being.
Posted by: annemasse1 Saturday, 31 May 2008 at 02:18 PM
If Sharon Stone had spent more time being a student of lamas and less time being their friend she might know that there is no such thing as group/collective karma.
Even though a forest may be composed of trees that exist due to common conditions, they do not share a root system!
Posted by: bardonaut Saturday, 31 May 2008 at 03:09 PM
I think she is delighted at other suffering or painfulness if she considers them as enemy. Chinese is her dislikes so she has such instant and hostile speech. Just like Muslims towards the Amercian sufferings–911. It is terrible the earth has such cold-blood human being! Actually, all world people come from the same origin in many years ago.
Posted by: Alan Sunday, 01 June 2008 at 06:27 AM

环球时报 2008-06-02 16:58:40
  日前,莎朗·斯通在戛纳发表了关于“中国四川地震是报应”的冷血言论之后,立即引起了海内外艺人和社会各界的强烈批评。然而,就在其代言公司迪奥发出以莎朗·斯通名义撰写的道歉信之后,斯通本人上周四却在接受《纽约时报》采访时表示不打算道歉,并否认了曾经道歉。此举不仅令迪奥的危机公关“穿帮 ”,更让众多华人愈加愤怒。
  上周四晚,莎朗·斯通接受了《纽约时报》长达45分钟的电话采访。“很明显,我显得像个白痴”,“这些话绝对不是我的本意,可我确实说了”,莎朗·斯通在两次观看视频后说。虽然对自己的评论表示悔悟,但她坚持说自己在戛纳的评论被电视媒体断章取义了。她还说她反对迪奥的危机处理方式,以她的名义发表的道歉歪曲了她的原意。莎朗·斯通透露她跟迪奥的 CEO通了电话表达自己的想法:“我不会道歉,我不会因为不实的、虚假的东西道歉。”
  然而,刚刚过去两天,莎朗·斯通又“变脸”了——上周六,这个自称智商达154的美国女星又突然跳出来,通过其公关负责人联络CNN,为自己在戛纳的言行道歉。据称,此次发表的声明是其亲自起草的,她在声明中说,“近日有许多关于我在法国戛纳电影节受访的报道。我想直接表明我心中的感受,并终止所有一切的误解。是的,我说错了话。对于这个错误,我深感后悔。但这不是我的初衷。我道歉,我并不想伤害任何人。我的一时失言,引起了媒体的渲染,对于这次事件给中国地震受难者所造成的痛楚,我非常非常地悲伤。”但同时她又为自己的言行寻找托辞,辩称自己的言论是被电视媒体断章取义。对于莎朗·斯通出尔反尔的举动和道歉,中国网民纷纷表示不会接受,并号召将其彻底封杀。

★其他五大“丑角”
  李察·基尔——这位好莱坞男星自称是达赖的学生,也是西藏问题国际运动的主席。不但拍摄了《红色角落》、《西藏七年》等影片抹黑中国,而且还直接推动对中国的人权抨击。
  比约克——今年3月,这位冰岛歌手在上海的演唱会上,在唱完“高举你们的旗帜,宣布独立吧!”的歌词后,突然高喊“西藏!西藏!”然后转身下台,让中国歌迷怒火中烧。
  米亚·法罗——去年3月28日,这位好莱坞女星在《华尔街日报》上发表文章,就达尔富尔问题指责中国,号召通过抵制北京奥运会向中国施加压力。
  乔治·克鲁尼——和米亚·法罗一样,这位好莱坞男星也是将人权问题与北京奥运挂钩的领军人物,他曾对北京奥运会的一个主要赞助商施加压力。
  本·阿弗莱克——这位年轻男影星对台湾问题似乎格外关注。有一次,他在接受台湾记者采访时,竟然抛开电影不谈,大谈起政治来:“要小心共产中国践踏台湾、占领台湾。”
  “好莱坞政治”不是今天才有的现象。由于好莱坞明星影响力大,许多政治势力都借助他们获得政治利益。去年,反华组织“达尔富尔之梦”就煽动好莱坞女星米亚·法罗抵制北京奥运。后来斯皮尔伯格宣布退出北京奥运会开闭幕式艺术顾问一职,便是米亚·法罗煽动的结果。在西方社会,只要涉及环保、人权、宗教等问题,连普通百姓也关心,所以一些反华组织就这些问题打起了“明星公关”的主意。为了实施这种策略,达赖集团研究并通晓西方媒体的话语体系,经常透过媒体接触西方各界要人,直接向某些公众明星鼓吹颠倒黑白的言论。久而久之,不谙政治却拥抱政治的明星们便轻易上当,于是才有莎朗·斯通替达赖说话、藐视中国人们感情的一幕。

中国崛起 美国应接受霸权萎缩现实
  美国外交政策研究所(智库)5月文章,原题:中国——伙伴还是对手?一个更成熟、更发达和更自信的中国将是合作伙伴还是战略对手?30多年来,美国对华外交政策基于鼓励中国融入全球社会的愿望,期待一个融入全球的中国会更“文明”。
  不过,对这种乐观政策的效果却存在不同看法。北京始终坚持统一“叛离省份”台湾,且必要时不惜动用武力,这似乎与中国强调的“和平崛起”相背离。
  类似担忧还有许多,幷且都是现实存在的;但它们未必导致中国与西方的敌对。30年来,中国已经接受自由市场经济原则,加入西方金融和贸易机构,幷且默默地努力成为“负责任的利益攸关方”。在所有这些方面,中国的行为调整都是实实在在的,构成了中国世界观的深刻巨变。
  但是,中西之间在利益和国家优先事务上仍存在巨大分歧。人们对此不应感到意外。当一个充满活力的大国崛起时,它会在一个由单一超级大国主导的世界寻求更大空间,这必然会产生摩擦。对于这些摩擦不必过度恐慌。真正的外交艺术不在于压制或排斥不同的国家利益,而在于学着去承认它们,尽可能地求同存异,必要时据理力争。
  不久前的一项预测显示,中国经济很可能在2030年前超过美国。一些分析家认为,美国将在2012年到2015年期间丧失在西太平洋的军事优势。
  这些预测确实令人不安。但是,如果只关注中国的经济和军事力量,我们就回避了有关中国最终意图的重大问题。在这方面要更乐观,除台湾问题之外,没有证据显示北京对任何外国怀有野心。相反,自上世纪80年代初以来,北京在施展外交和军事实力时一向抱着巨大的谨慎和克制。过去25年来,中国在世界政治中的行为基本上是靠向而不是背离国际惯例。中国已经踏上成为“负责任的利益攸关方”的道路。这种长期趋势足以让我们对未来谨慎乐观。
  但是,我们不应该期待一个合作的中国会无限制地给单边的美国力量、影响和利益让位。随着中国继续崛起,美国的地区和全球主导地位势必会受到冲击,中国将作为世界政治中的一支独立力量“展开翅膀”。就这方面而言,是美国而不是中国面临着更艰难的挑战———即大度地接受其单极全球霸权最终必然的萎缩。
  妖魔化中国将会适得其反。我们西方人最好为中国的进步力量助上一臂之力,而不是通过诋毁中国的一举一动而助长保守力量。也就是说,我们所做的不能最终保证一个和平、合作的中国。那是今后几代中国人自己的工作。我们所能做的是施以援手,使他们的这项任务变得更加容易。(作者:包瑞嘉——美国加州大学洛杉矶分校政治学教授,汪析/译 来源:环球时报)

Written by Boathill

2008-05-28 at 15:38

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