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Chinese in Translation

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Here collects some translation in Chinese.

习大大外交语录

★、丛林法则不是人类共存之道。原文:丛林法则不是人类共存之道,强权独霸不是人类和平和发展之策。(The Law of the Jungle and hegemonic policies will not benefit coexistence, peace and development for all mankind.)
★、中国这头狮子已经醒了。原文:拿破仑说过,中国是一头沉睡的狮子,当这头睡狮醒来时,世界都会为之发抖。中国这头狮子已经醒了,但这是一只和平的、可亲的、文明的狮子。(Napoleon Bonaparte once said that China “is a sleeping lion,” and “when China wakes up, the world will shake.” In fact, the lion of China has awoken, but what the world sees now, is a peaceful, amiable, civilized lion.)
★、任何一项事业,都需要远近兼顾、深谋远虑。原文:……远近兼顾、深谋远虑,杀鸡取卵、竭泽而渔式的发展是不会长久的。(Any cause we undertake will require due attention to both short and long-range targets, taking into account both immediate and long-term interests. Killing the goose that lays the golden eggs and draining a pond to catch fish is no formula for sustainable development.)
★、任何进步都不是直线的,有曲折也有反复。原文:越是在困难的时候,越要坚定信心。应该看到,任何进步都不是直线的,有曲折也有反复。(The more difficulties we face, the more confidence we must have. We should be aware that any progress is not made along a straight line, but with twists and turns.)
★、像到兄弟家中探访一样。原文:This will be my first trip to Pakistan, but I feel as if I am going to visit the home of my own brother.
★、大海之阔,非一流之归也。原文:大海之阔,非一流之归也。正是两国人民源源不断的相互理解和友谊,汇聚成了中澳友好关系之海。(The ocean is vast because it emits numerous rivers. It is the steady streams of mutual and understanding friendship between our peoples that have created the vast ocean of good will between China and Australia.)
★、宽广的太平洋有足够空间容纳中美两个大国。原文:我始终认为,宽广的太平洋有足够的空间容纳中美两个大国。中美双方应该加强对话,增信释疑,促进合作,确保中美关系始终不偏离构建新型大国关系的轨道。(The broad Pacific Ocean is vast enough to embrace both China and the United States. I hope that the two sides would work together to enhance mutual trust, reduce doubt, and boost cooperation through more dialogues, to ensure that the bilateral ties would consistently grow along the right track of the new type of major-country relationship.)
★、强不执弱,富不侮贫;国虽大,好战必亡。原文:中华民族历来爱好和平,和平、和睦、和谐的追求深深植根于中华民族的精神世界之中。中国自古就倡导“强不执弱,富不侮贫”,深刻总结了“国虽大,好战必亡”的箴言。(The pursuit of peace, amity and harmony is an integral part of the Chinese character. China has all along believed that “the strong should not oppress the weak and the rich should not bully the poor.” Even in ancient times, China already came to the conclusion that “a warlike state, however big it may be, will eventually perish.”)
★、志合者,不以山海为远。原文:中国和澳大利亚虽然远隔重洋,但历史和现实的纽带将我们紧紧连在一起。(As a Chinese saying goes: “Even mountains and seas cannot distance people with common aspirations.” Despite the geographical distance between us, China and Australia have been closely linked by history and reality.)
★、摒弃冷战思维,拒绝零和博弈。原文:要以史为鉴,摒弃冷战思维,拒绝零和博弈,共同维护地区和世界和平稳定。(The BRICS nations should draw lesson from history, abandon the Cold War mentality and zero-sum game, to jointly safeguard world and regional peace and stability.)
★、既可以酒逢知己千杯少,也可以品茶品味品人生。原文:正如中国人喜欢茶而比利时人喜爱啤酒一样,茶的含蓄内敛和酒的热烈奔放代表了品味生命、解读世界的两种不同方式。但是,茶和酒并不是不可兼容的,既可以酒逢知己千杯少,也可以品茶品味品人生。(The Chinese people are fond of tea and Belgians love beer. To me, the moderate tea drinker and passionate beer lover represent two ways of understanding life and knowing the world, and I find them equally rewarding. When good friends get together, they may want to drink to their hearts content to show their friendship. They may also choose to sit down quietly and drink tea while chatting about their lives.)
★、物之不齐,物之情也。原文:文明交流互鉴不应该以独尊某一种文明或者贬损某一种文明为前提。中国人在2000多年前就认识到了“物之不齐,物之情也”的道理。(Exchanges and mutual learning among civilizations must not be built on the exclusive praise or belittling of one particular civilization. As early as over 2,000 years ago, the Chinese people came to recognize that “it is only natural for things to be different”.)
★、相知无远近,万里尚为邻。原文:这句中国古诗是中国同拉美和加勒比国家关系的真实写照。(“Bosom friends make distance disappear.” This line from an ancient Chinese poem well captures the relations between China and Latin America and the Caribbean.)
★、真、实、亲、诚。原文:对待非洲朋友,我们讲一个“真”字。真朋友最可贵。开展对非合作,我们讲一个“实”字。加强中非友好,我们讲一个“亲”字。解决合作中的问题,我们讲一个“诚”字。(In treating African friends, we stress the importance of “sincerity”. True friends are the most valuable. In conducting cooperation with Africa, we stress the importance of “real results”. In strengthening China-Africa friendship, we stress the importance of “affinity”. In resolving problems that may crop up in cooperation, we stress the importance of “good faith”.)
★、缺的是勇气、胸襟、视野。原文:友谊建立在尊重、信任、包容基础上,国家交往亦是如此。当前,全面深化中德关系,缺的不是利益契合和共同目标,而是勇气、胸襟、视野。(Friendship is based on mutual respect, trust and accommodation, so are state-to-state relations. What is lacking in deepening China-Germany relations in all areas is not converging interests or common goals, but courage, broad-mindedness and vision.)
★、鞋子合不合脚,自己穿着才知道。原文:鞋子合不合脚,自己穿着才知道。一个国家的发展道路合不合适,只有这个国家的人民才最有发言权。(Whether the shoe fits or not, only the wearer him(her)self knows. It is the people of a country that are in the best position to judge the path of development they have chosen for themselves.)

另:译名一览

乔 叟 Geoffrey Chaucer
叔本华 Schopenhauer
叶利钦 Е́льцин(姓)俄罗斯总统
叶 芝 William Bultler Yeats(姓)爱尔兰诗人
商博良 Jean-François Champollion 历史学家,语言学家
图 灵 Alan Mathison Turing(姓)
基辛格 Henry Alfred Kissinger
孔复礼 Philip Alden Kuhn
尚万强 Jean Valjean
张伯伦 Chamberlain 英国首相&篮球皇帝 (姓)
李嘉图 Ricardo(姓)英国经济学家
李斯特 Liszt(姓)匈牙利作曲家
济 慈 John Keats(姓)英国诗人
王尔德 Wilde(姓)英国作家
白求恩 Bethune(姓)医生
简 爱 Jane Eyre
罗 素 Russell(姓)英国哲学家
聂鲁达 Neruda(姓)智利诗人
肖 邦 Chopin(姓)波兰作曲家
萧伯纳 George Bernard Shaw
葛兰言 Marcel Granet 法国汉学家
薛定谔 Schrödinger(名字)奥地利物理学家
裘 德 Jude(名)小说人物
裴多菲 Petőfi(名)匈牙利诗人
詹明信 Jameson(姓)文学理论研究者
赫胥黎 Huxley (姓)博物学者
邓 肯 Duncan(姓)NBA球员
雪 莱 Percy Bysshe Shelly 英国诗人
香 农 Claude Elwood Shannon
马克思 Karl Marx(姓)哲学家
马若德 Roderick MacFarquhar
高尔基 Горький(姓)作家
史迪威 Joseph Warren Stilwell(姓)
汤若望 Johann Adam Schall von Bell
南怀仁 Ferdinand Verbiest
利玛窦 Matteo Ricci

戴麟趾 David Clive Crosble Trench 港督
梅含理 Francis Henry May 港督
杨慕琦 Mark Aitchison Young 港督
卫奕信 David Wilson 港督
彭定康 Christopher Francis Patten 港督

卫礼贤 Richard Wilhelm 汉学家
史景迁 Jonathan D. Spence 汉学家
司徒琳 Lynn A.Struve 汉学家
周锡瑞 Joseph Esherick 汉学家
夏含夷 Edward L. Shaughnessy 汉学家
牟复礼 Frederick W. Mote mouful 汉学家
谢和耐 Jacques Gernet 汉学家
费正清 John King Fairbank 汉学家
马伯乐 Henri Maspero 汉学家
高本汉 Klas Bernhard Johannes Karlgren 汉学家
高罗佩 Robert Hans van Gulik
鲁惟一 Michael Loewe 汉学家

Written by Boathill

2015-10-17 at 21:00

Review 2014

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The WordPress.com presents a 2014 annual report for this blog.

boathill.wordpress.com 2014 in review

Here’s an excerpt:

A San Francisco cable car holds 60 people. This blog was viewed about 2,500 times in 2014. If it were a cable car, it would take about 42 trips to carry that many people.

There was 1 picture uploaded, taking a total of 2 KB.

The busiest day of the year was August 1st with 77 views. The most popular post that day was Photography Notes.

Click here to see the complete report: 2014 | 2013 | 2012.

Written by Boathill

2014-12-31 at 12:00

Posted in News, review

Tagged with , , , ,

转载:《团结湖参考》

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编者按:老猜、又名橡子、蔡方华,原名蔡勇平,男,湖北蕲春县青石镇桐梓人,湖北榜眼。北大中文系文学专业85级,曾任北大诗社社长,《北大往事》主编,有众多小说、诗歌出版。1989年后被分配到北京市化工局下属某厂劳动,N年后考入《北京日报》,现为《北京青年报》评论员。

周永康落马:从暗号到信号

  这一漫长的博弈延续了很多年,制造了很多政治八卦,衍生出无数的现代“宫廷”想象,凸现出参与者的漫画型人格,其间还夹杂着各种香艳或凄艳的故事。显赫的权力、巨大的财富、飘蓬般的人生、暗黑的情节、超越想象的演进、秒杀莎士比亚的构思、无数的杂音与合唱,所有这一切都汇聚在少数几个主角的周围,让外界头晕目眩。

  七月二十九日,一个普通的日子。晚上九点钟,一场豪雨落在了北京。
  此前三个小时左右,各大媒体几乎同时发布消息:原中共中央政治局常委周永康因涉嫌严重违纪,被立案审查。

  北京下雨和“大老虎”落马之间有关系吗?没有。
  但中国人历来有相信预兆的传统,但凡出现某种特殊的天象,奇人异士便会宣布将有重大事件发生。事实上,“预兆”的确曾经现身,却没有引起任何人的警觉。此前几天,中国东部频繁举行高强度军事演习,民用航空几乎陷入瘫痪状态,北京到上海的高铁一票难求。到二十九日晚,人们才恍然大悟。
  周永康落马,社会上弥漫着一种如释重负的情绪。在半年多的时间里,关于周永康的消息满天飞,就差捅破那层窗户纸。三月初,政协发言人在回答南华早报记者关于周永康的提问时,没有例行“辟谣”,而是用“你懂的”三个字作结。这样的表态,其实相当于抬起蘸了墨水的手指。舆论普遍相信,最终的消息很快就要出台。那段时间里,多家媒体不懈地挖掘周永康外围的消息,但要么以“你懂的”、“那个人”作为暗号,要么使用周永康的曾用名“周元根”。周永康的儿子周滨则成为新闻中的热门词汇。随着周永康深耕多年的石油和四川两个系统被中央纪委大力整肃,周永康本人的多个秘书和亲信相继落马,周永康却始终以匿名的形象盘踞在舆论场中,从来不曾退出公众的视线。
  就在人们出现审美疲劳时,就在外界纷纷猜测周可能软着陆时,那只靴子被扔了出来。中国曾经最有权势的人,被剥夺了“同志”的称号,坐到了早就为他准备好的历史位置上。7月29日傍晚,很多媒体人在电脑上敲下“周永康”三个字的时候,多少还有点战战兢兢。周永康已经脱敏,媒体人却难以自拔。
  即使不熟悉宫斗剧,只要你和北京的出租司机聊过天,你都能明白,抛出周永康落马的消息,背后意味着怎样激烈乃至险恶的斗争。这一漫长的博弈延续了很多年,制造了很多政治八卦,衍生出无数的现代“宫廷”想象,凸现出参与者的漫画型人格,其间还夹杂着各种香艳或凄艳的故事。显赫的权力、巨大的财富、飘蓬般的人生、暗黑的情节、超越想象的演进、秒杀莎士比亚的构思、无数的杂音与合唱,所有这一切都汇聚在少数几个主角的周围,让外界头晕目眩。很多人的命运由此彻底地改变了,而更多中国人的命运也因此有了潜在而无形的改变,只是他们对此并无太多认知。
  “大老虎”落马和我有一毛钱关系吗?很多人都在自媒体上这样发问。这样的提问并不愚蠢,只是麻木。
  最热衷于政治的中国人,在被切除参与政治的管道之后,对政治只剩下了旁观、议论与猜测。很多人都不再相信政治生活中最关键的那些词汇,比如正义和公正。他们只关心谁赢了、谁输了。这是猴子的政治哲学。
  倘若我们不想当猴子,就应该明白,周永康落马,并不只是一个政治集团的内部清洗,也不仅仅是权力更替的磅礴闭幕。它不只是习近平向少数人发出的明确信号,而是给所有中国人发出的信号。那它究竟说了什么?
  在特殊的政治生态中,处于权力巅峰的周永康是一个强大的思想符号。从他一贯的维稳实践看,人民,这个被誉为“国家主人”的抽象群体,不过是一个必须被治理和克服的“他者”。人民的合法权益,则是可以被随意安排、赐予或剥夺的恩惠。他本人则凭借权力的“代际授予”,超然于党纪和国法之上,从容地构筑自己的帝国。这个帝国由财富、权力、美色和阴谋构成,它吞噬人民的福利,削弱人民对于执政党的信念,蚕食国家的政治肌体,扭曲艰难成形的法治体系。这就是典型的寡头。如果听任这样的寡头坐大,不仅执政党的地位会受到深刻的挑战,国家的前途和人民的未来也将被操控在他们的手中。所以,周永康的落马,并不只是单纯的反腐狂飙突进,它是执政党对于寡头政治的一次有力反击,它是经历了无数折冲樽俎之后的尘埃落定。对于所有关心和不关心政治的普通人而言,这都是有着重大意义的。
  过去的十年,被人称为经济上最好的十年,政治和法律上最坏的十年,其中最主要的原因,就是寡头的迅速崛起。寡头就像癌细胞,有着强大的自我复制功能。凡被寡头染指的领域,无不快速走向腐朽和崩坏。与之相伴而生的,是社会上普遍弥漫的被剥夺感。失地的农民、仓皇的小贩、被高房价无情掠夺的城市无产者、被置于人民对立面的政法队伍、以及奔波在维稳道路上的大小官员,无不是寡头的受害者。寡头不除,中国就只能飞快跌入权贵资本主义的陷阱。从这个意义上看,周永康的落马,其实是一场深刻的、由执政党发起的自我革命,也是对人民的主体地位的强烈昭示。从习近平对维稳与维权关系的阐释中,可以更清晰地领悟到清算周永康思想残余的意义指向。
  很长一段时间里,人们都在争论革命与改良的道路选择。很多人都担心带有暴力色彩的革命的不可避免。这种忧虑并不是多余的。但是,周永康的落马,在一定程度上减弱了此种担忧。如果执政党能够以这样的魄力向自己身上的肿瘤开刀,如果最高领导层并不惮于自我揭丑,如果以周永康为代表的政法思路、维稳思想能够得到彻底清除,如果人民能够摆脱被剥夺、被管制、被恐吓的命运,革命就有可能被“去魅”,中国就可能走上改良的道路。
  在成为总书记之前,习近平就多次提到让人民共享改革发展成果。甫一上台,习近平就提出中国梦的概念。由于担心这一概念被歪曲,他随即强调,“中国梦归根结底是人民的梦”。习近平反复提及“人民”,并不是说着玩的,周永康对此肯定深有体会。
  你如果问我,是不是因为周永康落马这件事,对习近平有特别强烈的好感?我会抬头以45度角仰望星空,代表亚洲,不,代表人民,不,代表自己回答说:是的!

蔡方华:“后周时代”的九大政治猜想

  首先说点题外话。昨天,团结湖参考推出《周永康落马:从暗号到信号》,该文章的火爆程度令人吃惊!在被和谐之前,在三个授权刊发的公众号上,总阅读数超过26万,堪称当日全微信平台最热门的文章,没有之一。其直接的后果是,团结湖参考的粉丝数量大增。你,可能就是其中之一。欢迎各路高手的加盟,请多批评指教。
  “后周时代”是一个并不准确的提法,为了论述方便,我制造了这么一个概念。它指的是周永康落马,习近平和李克强真正把握中央权力之后,已经并即将到来的这么一个时代。
  细心的人可能会注意到,就在宣布周永康落马前后,中央又传达了两个极其重要的信息。这两个信息比“大老虎”落马其实更重要。其一,宣布下半年召开的中共十八届四中全会将以依法治国为主题;其二,国务院印发进一步推进户籍制度改革的意见。这两个问题,一向被看作中国的老大难命题,为什么会在周永康落马时突然大步突进呢?它们和周永康又有什么关系?
  说得简单一点,这其实就是划线,而且是以周永康为记号来划线。所以,未来将要发生的一切,都带有“后周时代”的印记。这个特征可不是我捏造的,而是上面通过特意安排时间节点而“生成”的脉络。此外,这也是一种独特的叙事策略,形象地说,就是“打土豪、分田地”。周永康落马,周永康曾经主导和管控的法治和民生领域也要焕然一新了。这不就是最直接的反腐红利吗?
  下面的政治猜想,主要是围绕政治生态和民生,宫斗不在内。

一,官员吃喝嫖赌的时代彻底过去了
  没赶上的就别惦记了,体验过的也别怀念。
  我有一个朋友(不是克林顿哈),是那种纯粹的、脱离了低级趣味的好人。天上人间被封时,他哀叹说,我还没去过呢。前不久东莞被扫荡,他又惋惜说,我也没去过呢。没去过就对了。
  “反四风”开始时,抵触情绪很大。也有人觉得,“反四风”就是一阵风,小风吹过之后该干吗干吗。但从习近平的执政风格看,政治风气被看作执政的一部分,也就说,官员再搞吃喝嫖赌,那就是跟党过不去。不办你才怪。你没注意到吗,再清廉的干部,只要有通奸问题,立马摘掉乌纱帽。
  “后周时代”将是一个官员清心寡欲的时代。你至少要忍十年,如果不听,将来会有好看。

二,反腐败寻求软着陆
  吃了我的给我吐出来,拿了我的给我还回来。
  执政党反腐败和民众想象的反腐败是有差异的。
  这一轮反腐有个特点,那就是:苍蝇成片扫,老虎连窝端。也就是说,打苍蝇带有随机性,打老虎则是瞄好的。饶是如此,暴露出来的腐败问题也够触目惊心的。反腐如果照这个路子走下去会怎么样呢?你想想就明白了。
  所以,在反腐收到预期的效果之后,有可能效仿当年香港对腐败警察的做法,大赦。按照我的同事张天蔚的说法,大赦有个前提,那就是老百姓对反腐基本满意了。在这个前提下,对腐败存量可以既往不咎,但对腐败增量零容忍。也许不会明确提“大赦”这个词,但考虑到执政的稳定性和执政党的凝聚性,反腐软着陆是可能的选项。对此,老百姓也该理解,总不能都抓起来吧?
  “后周时代”,官民之间要学着和解。

三,阳光法案适时出台
  所谓深水区,都是水里的大鱼制造出的唬人概念。
  阳光法案就是让官员公布财产,这个做法以前是不可想象的,现在可以想象了。就连一向大胆的于建嵘教授,都对阳光法案表示悲观。但是,你考虑过习近平同志的魄力吗?
  公车改革在胡温时代探索了很多年,怎么也摸不到过河的石头。习李没做任何铺垫,直接公布了一揽子改革方案,有任何反对意见吗?有也不敢说啊!这就是权威或者说威权在中国的现实必要性。跛脚的执政,遇到什么事情都难,因为政令不出中南海。中国人,包括大小官员在内,最信奉的是什么呢?那就是以父权为表征的权威。你以为“习大大”这个称呼是没有出处的?
  那个卷起了裤腿的人,随意就走进了深水区。根本就不深。在反腐败“挤出”大部分腐败官员和腐败资产之后,阳光法案必然出台,不然反腐就是西西弗斯的悲剧。这个故事,岐山同志肯定很熟悉。
  “后周时代”,深水区就是炫耀泳技的地方。水雷去死。

四,国企高管的仕途或被切断
  如果周永康安心待在中石油,就不会有今天的结局了。
  寡头的厉害之处,在于用做生意的方式经营政治。如果一个懂得做生意的人进入政治场域,得到了特别的赏识又很少受到束缚,他很快就会成为寡头。生意人一旦成为政治家都是很可怕的,比如贝卢斯科尼,比如周永康。中国过去在商人和政治家之间没有做必要的区隔,他们的角色换来换去,结果把商界风气带到了政坛。以后这种局面必须有所改变,政治家将会成为一种职业化的、特殊的物种。
  “后周时代”,生意人就别想当官了,顶多给你个政协副主席。你要吗?

五,司法进一步独立和公开
  维稳高于一切的时代终结了。眼镜哥,你可以在合适的时候回家看看。
  有法不依,执法者枉法,司法机关乱法,特权阶层践踏法律,这样的情形过去司空见惯。十八届四中全会之后,这些乱象将有极大的改观。执政党深刻地认识到,不依法治国,国家就会成为少数人的玩物,人民就会成为草民。不依法治国,中国的国际形象就始终无法提升。靠陈光标买纽约时报的版面能提升国家形象吗?别逗了。
  依法治国,就必须让司法独立和公开。行政干预司法,会成为一条红线,谁踩了谁完蛋。假如你刚好是个地方党政首脑,从现在开始就记住,别没事就给法院院长和法官打电话。他录音之后往上面一递,你可能就下课了。
  什么是司法公开?周永康的案子可能按照薄熙来的路子审理。“康熙来了”,就是司法公开。
  “后周时代”,政法委书记的主要职能是协调。非法律出身的法院院长基本都会调离。

六,违宪审查机制或将建立
  宪法不具备可诉性,那就不是宪法。是样子货。
  一般人都不太明白宪法可诉性是啥意思,我也是一知半解。打个比方说吧,你是个混在上海的外地人,但你的孩子不能在上海上学,不能在上海参加高考。你很生气,你碰巧知道宪法规定你家孩子拥有受教育的权利,于是你就上法院起诉上海市教委,结果,法院拒绝受理了。这就叫宪法不具备可诉性。违反宪法的行政行为不能被起诉,地方政府自然就乱来了,权力自然就不在笼子里了,你们家房子就被强拆了,土地就被征收了,你如果维权还会被收监了。这能叫依法治国吗?
  违宪审查机制如果确立,全国人大常委会就会很厉害。如果我大胆预言首家宪法法院将在三年内成立,不会有人打我吧?
  “后周时代”,法律人的地位将得到很大提升,“死磕派”也成了温和派。

七,诸侯退隐或宣誓拥护中央
  没有什么地方、什么东西是你们家的,都是人民的。
  早些年,湖北姓关,河北姓程。后来,四川姓周,重庆姓什么来着?
  无论是地域还是领域,一旦被某个人深耕,那就成了他们家的封地,中央轻易不能动。中央政权的软弱,客观上会造成诸侯割据的现象。几千年来,中国人吃苦头最多的恐怕就是诸侯割据了。
  现代诸侯没有立法权,但可以把法律玩弄于股掌之间。执法者都是他们的家奴。周永康之后,甭管多么根底深厚的家族,恐怕都要忌惮三分。即使不忌惮人民,也忌惮高举人民旗帜的中央,不然就等着被摧枯拉朽吧。
  “后周时代”,希望人民可以胡说八道,但大人们都夹起尾巴。

八,清理并封存政治遗产
  官员们上台念稿子越来越困难,因为要罗列的政治口号太多了。减负从官员抓起。
  从我写时事评论开始,就接触各种政治套话。在“什么什么什么什么”的指引之下,听着都累,更别提念叨的人了。政治遗产太多,束缚就多,条条框框就多,手脚必然不能灵活。四中全会将会开成一个清理遗产的大会,什么“三个至上”、什么综治维稳、什么法官讲政治,都将退出话语舞台。你见过习近平强调戴几块表吗?一个朴素的人,戴一块表就够了。文盲才在上衣口袋别上三支钢笔。
  “后周时代”作兴说家常话,作兴唠嗑红脸出汗洗澡,就是不戴表。

九,解放思想
  空气都糟成这样了,你还动不动就过敏,还活不活了。
  我小心翼翼打出了“宪政”这个词。请各位看官自行脑补。
  “后周时代”也会有禁区,但不会浑身都是G点。
  从推出《周永康落马:从暗号到信号》开始,就有很多人说我太乐观。就差没说我浪漫了。估计这篇文章会受到同样的批评。我承认,我确实倾向于乐观。
  我的哲学是:再不乐观就老了。
  太多的意识形态话语曾以催眠的方式给了人民幻觉,但醒来后被窝都是潮湿的。

蔡方华:乐观改变中国

  还是要说几句题外话。昨天,团结湖参考推出《“后周时代”的九大政治猜想》,获得空前热烈的关注,截至今天早晨,阅读数超过118万(当然其中有十来次是我自己点的)。说实话,我真的被吓到了。
  粉丝也是汹涌而至,留言如同潮水。我的领导、北京青年报总编辑余海波要求我每一条留言都回复,但“臣妾真的做不到啊”!但我还是尽可能回复了一部分。感谢大家对团结湖参考的厚爱。我并没有真的把你们当成粉丝,而是看作老师。你们的意见我都认真地看、认真地思考了。
  鉴于《周永康落马:从暗号到信号》被和谐的教训,我想先交代一下“后事”。我的大部分文章,会在北京青年报另一公众号“政知局”同步更新。“政知局”还有大量时政分析类文章可以阅读。所以,大家如果担心某一天突然看不到我的文章,就请现在搜索并关注“政知局”。我不想失去你们。
  很多朋友都想再看“暗号信号”那篇文章,这里再告诉大家,回复0730可以提取。很多人都回复0731、0307什么的,我差点哭了。拜托一定看清楚哈。
  今天推送周永康系列评论第三篇,然后这个话题就打住了。会有更多更新奇的文字、会有更多的高高高手的文章送给你。我不是一个人在战斗。
  喂,徐达内!这个公众号的名字是团结湖参考。上回你写成观察了。
  我有一个很帅的同事,男的,在北京高大上的CBD(中央商务区)创办北青社区报。前两天,他在某咖啡馆(他成天泡咖啡馆,CBD好像遍地咖啡馆)偶遇泰晤士报记者Leo,Leo跟他抱怨说,泰晤士报竟然把周永康落马的消息放在了第28版的卧底,还是一小条,“太丢人了!”这是个很有意思的现象。泰晤士报在北京有外派记者,但他们却不知道怎么处理最重要的中国新闻。或者说,他们不知道该如何衡量周永康落马的新闻分量。
  泰晤士报的新闻专业水平肯定没得挑。但是,生活在伦敦的人,知道周永康是谁,却不懂得周永康究竟意味着什么。盘根错节的权力谱系,此消彼长的代际博弈,政治现实与戏曲桥段的交相辉映,个体命运与国家前途的销魂交错,都不是生活在中国之外的人能够心领神会的。即便是国人,也未必能够完全参透,这与信息流通的格局有关。
  所以,对周永康落马这件事,知识阶层与普罗大众有着不同的判断,是完全正常的。
  周永康落马能够成为历史节点吗?马少华对此提出疑问。背后的问题是,存在一个“周时代”吗?当然不。我原本在稿子里这么写:“后周时代”是一个并不准确的提法,因为并不存在一个“周时代”。但又把后半句删掉了。因为我觉得这是众所周知的事实。但由于中国特定的政治现实,把周永康看作一个过往时代的符码,我觉得是可以的。周永康给中国法治带来的影响,进而给人民生活带来的难言苦痛,是很难一笔勾销的。想一想,在胡温的眼皮底下就有黑监狱,这是多么难以想象的往事。致敬马少华!质疑和商榷只会带来更多的思考,没有坏处。
  把周永康落马与户籍制度改革、依法治国议题“并置”,无疑是一个很高明的议程设置。除了要看到其中的“高明”之处,还应看到它对人民所释放的善意。其中有这样的历史勾勒:反腐败、打老虎并不仅仅是为了巩固执政,更重要的是为民造福。我相信这样的善意是真诚的。
  我写了十多年的时事评论,经历了多个“朝代”,跟踪过所有重要的中国议题。用俗话说,是时评界的“老炮儿”。有一点从未改变,从第一次写社评到今天,我始终都是一个愤世嫉俗者、批评者、幼稚的家伙和“圈外人”。有人看了前面两篇文章,认为我是在粉饰政斗、是给习近平“洗地”,还担心我带坏了单位的年轻同事。这既是误解,也是极大的恭维。我要有那背景,就不会长年在路边摊“撸串”了。吃的是老鼠肉,挤出来的是良知啊!
  一个悲观主义者忽然变成了乐天派,的确有些可疑。我的同事张天蔚在朋友圈转发“九猜”时,加了这样的评注:“如果人民需要浪漫”。人民需要浪漫吗?人民需要可以摸得到的浪漫,但不需要幻觉。过去,太多的意识形态话语曾以催眠的方式给了人民幻觉,但醒来后被窝都是潮湿的。今天的我之所以乐观,之所以敢于列举那些“猜想”,之所以大幅度接近浪漫,是基于我对社会的长期关注和判断,基于对当下现实的解读,其中存在着真实的逻辑。很多不可能发生的事正在发生,很多不会了结的事正在了结,很多固若金汤的藩篱正在打破,歧视、仇恨、怀疑、怨恨正在慢慢消解。你要永远记恨你的时代吗?我不。我相信,“九大猜想”中相当一部分都会成为现实。而让那还不能实现的,就成为中国梦的一部分吧。
  作为一个出身底层的人、一个过气的诗人,我始终对人民怀着深厚的情感。这是最后的情怀。即使我知道“人民”这个词汇并不能准确指代什么,但是,当我看到它,我想起的总是湖北乡下那些肩扛背驮的人。他们尝尽苦难,偶尔接近幸福。他们活着,却像从未存在。他们永远也没有机会刷出自己的存在感。他们的后代即使走入城市,也会背上“凤凰男”的污名。他们死了,就会永远死了。如果有一个政党,宣示要让这些人也共享改革发展的成果,而且它正在那么做,即使它的前面歧路重重、布满迷雾,我也没有理由反对。
  微博刚兴起时,有个口号叫“围观改变中国”,我觉得挺有道理。“围观”确实表达了民意,也改变了很多事。比如劳教制度,基本就是在“围观”的情形下寿终正寝的。但是今天,在移动互联的时代,在人人都能方便地发出自己声音的时代,在苍蝇老虎星坠如雨的时代,在农民有望变成城里人的时代,在法律慢慢恢复尊严的时代,在人民成为高频词的时代,在通奸成为高压线的时代,在政治禁区被不断突破的时代,在水雷变成水母的时代,在公知不断发出感叹的时代,尤其是,在中国处于三岔路口的时代,乐观,更能改变中国。因为乐观能给改革者提供更敞亮的窗口期,乐观能让掌舵者有机会试错,乐观能让社会减少戾气,乐观能给中国的未来带来更好的预期。乐观没有什么错,只有愚蠢的乐观才是错的。
  上一次,我以45度角仰望星空,结果文章被和谐了。这回,我以大角度俯看大地,说:我坚信。


〓〓〓〓〓我是分割线,我不分割观点〓〓〓〓〓
☆  团结湖不是中南海,但能看见长安街。 ☆
☆  如果眼神够好,还能看见辽阔的大陆。 ☆
〓〓〓〓〓〓〓〓〓〓〓〓〓〓〓〓〓〓〓〓〓〓

马少华:我看周案之后的“政治猜想”

  北青报评论部微信公号“团结湖参考”继昨天推出评论员蔡方华的文章《周永康落马:从暗号到信号》,“总阅读数超过26万,堪称当日全微信平台最热门的文章”之后,今天再次推出蔡方华文章《“后周时代”的九大政治猜想》。我读之后,在转发时评价说:“方华此文,揣摩官方的行事节奏和叙事策略。我愿意他猜得准。但也觉得未免乐观。(上午的朋友圈中,也有人用“浪漫”一词评价之)对周案作为历史节点的地位评价可能过高。”
  所谓“历史节点”,就是他文中所谓“后周时代”的说法。他自己承认,这“是一个并不准确的提法,为了论述方便,我制造了这么一个概念。它指的是周永康落马,习近平和李克强真正把握中央权力之后,已经并即将到来的这么一个时代。”
  这个表述可能是有问题的。周倒了,或者查办了周,习近平和李克强才真正把握中央权力吗?粗看显然是不通的。周永康只是分管政法领域的常委。习近平和李克强并不是从周永康的手中接过中央权力的。但如果考虑到中央查办周案的阻力和克服这个阻力的结果——如果真的有这样一个过程的话,那么,也可以把查办周案看作是“习近平和李克强真正把握中央权力”的一个标志性事件。
  但尽管如此,没有限定的“后周时代”——以此作为历史节点对中国进行全面展望,仍然恐怕是有问题的。如果因为周永康是主管政法领域的中央政治局常委,我们说在他卸任之后,政法领域进入了“后周时代”,这是没有问题。我们甚至可以把这种“提法”适用于一个企业。然而,这种提法如果对于预测国家和人民的前景有意义的话,其前提仍然在于:这个国家究竟是怎样被管理的?一个分管涉及人民基本权利的政法领域的政治局常委,是否可以在自己的分管领域中独行一套与整个中央的意图不同、其他中央领导管不着,也无权过问的政策?如果不是的话,我们是否可以说“后周时代”过去了?如果是的话,我们是否可以说“后周时代”过去了?所谓“周时代”或“后周时代”,到底是仅指一个人,还是指一种国家管理的方式、一种政治体制?
  蔡方华这篇文章的独到之处,就是体察到与周案相关的中央“叙事策略”。他用这样两段阐述这种策略:
  “细心的人可能会注意到,就在宣布周永康落马前后,中央又传达了两个极其重要的信息。这两个信息比“大老虎”落马其实更重要。其一,宣布下半年召开的中共十八届四中全会将以依法治国为主题;其二,国务院印发进一步推进户籍制度改革的意见。这两个问题,一向被看作中国的老大难命题,为什么会在周永康落马时突然大步突进呢?它们和周永康又有什么关系?
  说得简单一点,这其实就是划线,而且是以周永康为记号来划线。所以,未来将要发生的一切,都带有“后周时代”的印记。这个特征可不是我捏造的,而是上面通过特意安排时间节点而“生成”的脉络。此外,这也是一种独特的叙事策略,形象地说,就是“打土豪、分田地”。周永康落马,周永康曾经主导和管控的法治和民生领域也要焕然一新了。这不就是最直接的反腐红利吗?”

  这是什么意思呢?它的意思是:“上面通过特意安排时间节点”,使周永康案成为中国社会进步的标志性事件,哪怕周案与这些社会进步的事业并无实质性联系。这就是通过政治信号传播而实现的所谓“叙事策略”。用大白话说:事物之间的关系并不一定是这样的,但要让人们感到是这样的。因为,在历史的记述中,“时间关系”往往会代替“因果关系”。这样的叙事策略,就是“给历史打草稿”。
  在这个意义上,控制政治信息传播节奏的幕后高人——如果存在的话,不仅试图影响现实,也试图影响历史。
  昨天腾讯“大家”发表的石扉客一场步步惊心的打虎传播战》(《打虎舆论战》),其核心判断的基础,也是建立在这样一位政治传播幕后高人存在的基础之上的:“周案传播战操盘者的刀法仍然比公众和媒体想象的要高明太多。通过一次次反复释放信息又反复做空,他们以审美疲劳的方式成功完成了政治脱敏和压力测试的双重目标。”(尽管我的一位师兄不赞成我在此使用“传播”这个概念,因为这种“传播”本身违反了“传播规律”)。
  尽管我的另一位朋友对于上面这篇文章的评价颇有不恭,认为:“这种政治屌丝猜度上意总是一套一套的。”但我还是倾向于接受:那位操纵信息传播的高人是存在的。而其进而操作历史草稿的判断,则是我自己大胆的判断,并不一定靠得住。就算是对蔡方华文意的一种解读吧。
  只是,如果是这样的话,在这种信息操纵的基础上和范围内进行“猜测”的蔡方华和石扉客,也就不免成为这种传播策略和叙事策略不自觉的配合者。
  但是,如果蔡方华包括“阳光法案适时出台”、“违宪审查机制或将建立”等对于中国的“九大政治猜想”过于乐观,或者最终判断错了的话,那么,他就不是在猜测,而只是在表达期望。即,它并不真是一个“事实判断”,而是一个“价值判断”。它是假扮成“事实判断”的“价值判断”。如是,则没有什么准确不准确的。
  当代中国舆论中的许多“政治猜测”,可能往往如此。因为,把“价值期望”包装成一种“事实猜测”,也是一种传播策略。从长远的角度看,一些符合民心和历史大势的正确价值,总要最终变成事实。在这个意义上,这样一类政治猜测也没有准确不准确的。
  在今天这样一个时代,公开表达价值意愿,至少不是没有意义的事。

附:史记周永康列传

  周永康者,别名元根,无锡人氏。父周义生,家贫,在西前头村从农,为村民周阿宝相中,以女下嫁。周义生入赘,生长子周元根,次子元青,三子元兴。
  少时,元根木纳少言,智慧聪颖,敏而有礼,笃学博闻,村民甚喜之。以乡试探花入千年学堂苏州中学,从此一发不可收拾。为一班之长,统领才能初现。又三年。元根入京师石油学院,当世之名校。以农事之子而入名校,时人皆曰此子前途未可限量。
  其时,国弱贫油,受制外国,太祖广召贤才,欲以石油兴邦。泽东十八年,元根受命远赴辽河,为国掘油,以技艺见长。其后三十又二年,累功成油业巨子。
  生子周滨,次子周涵。而国已历三世。
  泽民九年,内阁变动,国土资源部立,拜元根为尚书。不过一年,元根转四川都督,为一方诸侯。权柄在手,呼风唤雨,天府之国人人侧目。元根事上尽勤,上日重,倚为肱骨之臣。
  泽民十三年,上禅位于四世,擢元根入京。锦涛元年,为刑部尚书。元根以尚书之衔,统领公、检、法。其时之三权,分立监督,互不相亲,元根深以为恶,乃内罢不命之人,外争三权扩张,遂成三位一体,权势冲天,风头一时无两。
  锦涛六年,元根更擢为内阁大学士,仍掌刑部。其时四世虽受位,然太上皇健在,内阁由诸大学士分掌,九人决策,元根三权归一,内外休服,一颦一笑皆为国事,隐然二人之下,万人之上。
  元根少时谨慎值事,而权势日上,则忘乎所以。妻王氏,贤惠能中,然元根厌其色衰,欲休之。王氏抵命不从,元根遣人遗事,以车祸害命,遂另取贾氏。贾氏事职央视,有沉鱼落雁之貌。
  古语云,一人得道,鸡犬升天。元根鼎盛,家人故旧皆大行其道。贾氏扶正,假元根之名,售卖官职,明码标价,号称童叟无欺。子周滨海外受学归国,以石油为业,日进斗金。时人皆曰,非人之所能,而在权势也。其弟元青,识字不过几个,经营生意成万金之家,动辄与人曰,尔等卿卿,然谁能与大学士勾通?唯吾能。左右默然。
  元根以权成事,深知不可一日无权。然依规制,元根必在锦涛十年去职,为防职去权空,人走茶凉,元根与重庆都督薄氏结盟,阴以薄代己,公权私授以延权势。终因薄督行事不密,山城事发,功亏一篑。
  锦涛十年,上禅位于五世。五世内敛收功,逐一剪除元根党羽。一时之间,官帽落地如狂风落叶之势。近平二年末,大内总管栗战书亲率御林军突袭周家,获九百亿金,另获密谋名单,天下始知周薄之事。其行事之大胆,预谋之周密,世人震惊。近平三年七月,上昭告天下,元根被查,震惊寰宇,万民额手称庆。
  太史公曰:元根为农事之家,以布衣起身,聪明绝智,一步一步登权势之顶,不可谓不绝也。然一旦权柄在手,表面盛世,一味维稳,强压民众权利主张,视人命为蝼蚁,弃民生如敝履。培植党羽,结成周党,贪污腐化,售权为财,终为万民唾弃。嗟乎!为官之人,不以民生为福,专权弄事,毫无底线,则能力越强,为祸越深。诚如名士曰:权为利剑,能伤人,亦能伤己。不可不察也。


〓〓〓〓〓〓〓〓〓〓〓〓〓〓〓〓〓〓〓〓〓〓
转载来自:《语像
  看生活!放眼世界,目击大事。看穷人的面孔,和牛B者的姿态;看奇异的事物——机器、军队、群众、丛林和月球上的阴影;看人类的创造——绘画、雕塑、大厦、宫殿、城堡;看人类的贪婪和杀戮;看美丽的动物;看自然,看山上每一棵不同的树;看自然的反抗和报复;看灾难和战乱;看难以想像的危险;看男人所爱的女人和孩子。看!赏心悦目的看!看!惊愕赞叹地看!看,从看中得收益!
  我目睹一位“英雄”的崛起,我记录一个“国家”的灭亡……我是有历史感的摄影家,我是“语像”文学的发明人。
  想多远,走多远。Think & Walk。有见地、求实证,思行合一。
  我原创、我自主、我不可替代。我喜欢,我擅长,我以此为生。
  我自嘲、我自省、我自趣。我来了,我看见了,我赢了。
  一线耳目,二B喉舌,三陪服务,四海漫游。珠峰南极,火灾地震。洪水瘟疫,暴乱枪击。海湾战争,贫铀辐射。罹患骨穿,再障贫血。奄奄垂死,重度抑郁。颓龄戏笔,百疏一密。贬斥势利,尊崇三闾。只观风月,不知风雨。刺刺不休,沾沾自喜。忽庄忽谐,亦文亦史。述事言情,悲生悯死。繁琐冗长,见笑君子。失明膑脚,半聋昏聩。得成此书,乃天所假。卧榻沉思,瞑书然脂。痛哭古人,留赠来者。刻意伤春,贮泪盈把。国际视野,职业素养。亲临现场,是为“语像”。

Written by Boathill

2014-07-31 at 22:00

Blog review 2013

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The WordPress.com presents a 2013 annual report for this blog.

boathill.wordpress.com 2013 in review

Here’s an excerpt:

A San Francisco cable car holds 60 people. This blog was viewed about 2,300 times in 2013. If it were a cable car, it would take about 38 trips to carry that many people.

In 2013, there were 15 new posts, growing the total archive of this blog to 283 posts.

The busiest day of the year was February 17th with 201 views. The most popular post that day was New Year.

Click here to see the complete report: 2013 | 2012.

Written by Boathill

2013-12-31 at 08:30

Posted in News, review

Tagged with

Blog review 2012

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The WordPress.com stats helper monkeys prepared a 2012 annual report for this blog.

Here’s an excerpt:

600 people reached the top of Mt. Everest in 2012. This blog got about 6,600 views in 2012. If every person who reached the top of Mt. Everest viewed this blog, it would have taken 11 years to get that many views.

In 2012, there were 16 new posts, growing the total archive of this blog to 267 posts.

The busiest day of the year was September 26th with 648 views. The most popular post that day was CCNet vs. CruiseControl.

Click here to see the complete report.

Written by Boathill

2012-12-31 at 08:00

Posted in News, review

Tagged with

Chinese Mothers

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Why Chinese Mothers Are SuperiorWhy Chinese Mothers Are Superior

Can a regimen of no playdates, no TV, no computer games and hours of music practice create happy kids? And what happens when they fight back?

Source: WSJ, by Amy Chua

A lot of people wonder how Chinese parents raise such stereotypically successful kids. They wonder what these parents do to produce so many math whizzes and music prodigies, what it’s like inside the family, and whether they could do it too. Well, I can tell them, because I’ve done it. Here are some things my daughters, Sophia and Louisa, were never allowed to do:

• attend a sleepover
• have a playdate
• be in a school play
• complain about not being in a school play
• watch TV or play computer games
• choose their own extracurricular activities
• get any grade less than an A
• not be the No. 1 student in every subject except gym and drama
• play any instrument other than the piano or violin
• not play the piano or violin.

I’m using the term “Chinese mother” loosely. I know some Korean, Indian, Jamaican, Irish and Ghanaian parents who qualify too. Conversely, I know some mothers of Chinese heritage, almost always born in the West, who are not Chinese mothers, by choice or otherwise. I’m also using the term “Western parents” loosely. Western parents come in all varieties.

All the same, even when Western parents think they’re being strict, they usually don’t come close to being Chinese mothers. For example, my Western friends who consider themselves strict make their children practice their instruments 30 minutes every day. An hour at most. For a Chinese mother, the first hour is the easy part. It’s hours two and three that get tough.

(When it comes to parenting, the Chinese seem to produce children who display academic excellence, musical mastery and professional success – or so the stereotype goes. WSJ’s Christina Tsuei speaks to two moms raised by Chinese immigrants who share what it was like growing up and how they hope to raise their children.)

Despite our squeamishness about cultural stereotypes, there are tons of studies out there showing marked and quantifiable differences between Chinese and Westerners when it comes to parenting. In one study of 50 Western American mothers and 48 Chinese immigrant mothers, almost 70% of the Western mothers said either that “stressing academic success is not good for children” or that “parents need to foster the idea that learning is fun.” By contrast, roughly 0% of the Chinese mothers felt the same way. Instead, the vast majority of the Chinese mothers said that they believe their children can be “the best” students, that “academic achievement reflects successful parenting,” and that if children did not excel at school then there was “a problem” and parents “were not doing their job.” Other studies indicate that compared to Western parents, Chinese parents spend approximately 10 times as long every day drilling academic activities with their children. By contrast, Western kids are more likely to participate in sports teams.

What Chinese parents understand is that nothing is fun until you’re good at it. To get good at anything you have to work, and children on their own never want to work, which is why it is crucial to override their preferences. This often requires fortitude on the part of the parents because the child will resist; things are always hardest at the beginning, which is where Western parents tend to give up. But if done properly, the Chinese strategy produces a virtuous circle. Tenacious practice, practice, practice is crucial for excellence; rote repetition is underrated in America. Once a child starts to excel at something—whether it’s math, piano, pitching or ballet—he or she gets praise, admiration and satisfaction. This builds confidence and makes the once not-fun activity fun. This in turn makes it easier for the parent to get the child to work even more.

Chinese parents can get away with things that Western parents can’t. Once when I was young—maybe more than once—when I was extremely disrespectful to my mother, my father angrily called me “garbage” in our native Hokkien dialect. It worked really well. I felt terrible and deeply ashamed of what I had done. But it didn’t damage my self-esteem or anything like that. I knew exactly how highly he thought of me. I didn’t actually think I was worthless or feel like a piece of garbage.

As an adult, I once did the same thing to Sophia, calling her garbage in English when she acted extremely disrespectfully toward me. When I mentioned that I had done this at a dinner party, I was immediately ostracized. One guest named Marcy got so upset she broke down in tears and had to leave early. My friend Susan, the host, tried to rehabilitate me with the remaining guests.

The fact is that Chinese parents can do things that would seem unimaginable—even legally actionable—to Westerners. Chinese mothers can say to their daughters, “Hey fatty—lose some weight.” By contrast, Western parents have to tiptoe around the issue, talking in terms of “health” and never ever mentioning the f-word, and their kids still end up in therapy for eating disorders and negative self-image. (I also once heard a Western father toast his adult daughter by calling her “beautiful and incredibly competent.” She later told me that made her feel like garbage.)

Chinese parents can order their kids to get straight As. Western parents can only ask their kids to try their best. Chinese parents can say, “You’re lazy. All your classmates are getting ahead of you.” By contrast, Western parents have to struggle with their own conflicted feelings about achievement, and try to persuade themselves that they’re not disappointed about how their kids turned out.

I’ve thought long and hard about how Chinese parents can get away with what they do. I think there are three big differences between the Chinese and Western parental mind-sets.

First, I’ve noticed that Western parents are extremely anxious about their children’s self-esteem. They worry about how their children will feel if they fail at something, and they constantly try to reassure their children about how good they are notwithstanding a mediocre performance on a test or at a recital. In other words, Western parents are concerned about their children’s psyches. Chinese parents aren’t. They assume strength, not fragility, and as a result they behave very differently.

For example, if a child comes home with an A-minus on a test, a Western parent will most likely praise the child. The Chinese mother will gasp in horror and ask what went wrong. If the child comes home with a B on the test, some Western parents will still praise the child. Other Western parents will sit their child down and express disapproval, but they will be careful not to make their child feel inadequate or insecure, and they will not call their child “stupid,” “worthless” or “a disgrace.” Privately, the Western parents may worry that their child does not test well or have aptitude in the subject or that there is something wrong with the curriculum and possibly the whole school. If the child’s grades do not improve, they may eventually schedule a meeting with the school principal to challenge the way the subject is being taught or to call into question the teacher’s credentials.

If a Chinese child gets a B—which would never happen—there would first be a screaming, hair-tearing explosion. The devastated Chinese mother would then get dozens, maybe hundreds of practice tests and work through them with her child for as long as it takes to get the grade up to an A.

Chinese parents demand perfect grades because they believe that their child can get them. If their child doesn’t get them, the Chinese parent assumes it’s because the child didn’t work hard enough. That’s why the solution to substandard performance is always to excoriate, punish and shame the child. The Chinese parent believes that their child will be strong enough to take the shaming and to improve from it. (And when Chinese kids do excel, there is plenty of ego-inflating parental praise lavished in the privacy of the home.)

Second, Chinese parents believe that their kids owe them everything. The reason for this is a little unclear, but it’s probably a combination of Confucian filial piety and the fact that the parents have sacrificed and done so much for their children. (And it’s true that Chinese mothers get in the trenches, putting in long grueling hours personally tutoring, training, interrogating and spying on their kids.) Anyway, the understanding is that Chinese children must spend their lives repaying their parents by obeying them and making them proud.

By contrast, I don’t think most Westerners have the same view of children being permanently indebted to their parents. My husband, Jed, actually has the opposite view. “Children don’t choose their parents,” he once said to me. “They don’t even choose to be born. It’s parents who foist life on their kids, so it’s the parents’ responsibility to provide for them. Kids don’t owe their parents anything. Their duty will be to their own kids.” This strikes me as a terrible deal for the Western parent.

Third, Chinese parents believe that they know what is best for their children and therefore override all of their children’s own desires and preferences. That’s why Chinese daughters can’t have boyfriends in high school and why Chinese kids can’t go to sleepaway camp. It’s also why no Chinese kid would ever dare say to their mother, “I got a part in the school play! I’m Villager Number Six. I’ll have to stay after school for rehearsal every day from 3:00 to 7:00, and I’ll also need a ride on weekends.” God help any Chinese kid who tried that one.

Don’t get me wrong: It’s not that Chinese parents don’t care about their children. Just the opposite. They would give up anything for their children. It’s just an entirely different parenting model.

Here’s a story in favor of coercion, Chinese-style. Lulu was about 7, still playing two instruments, and working on a piano piece called “The Little White Donkey” by the French composer Jacques Ibert. The piece is really cute—you can just imagine a little donkey ambling along a country road with its master—but it’s also incredibly difficult for young players because the two hands have to keep schizophrenically different rhythms.

Lulu couldn’t do it. We worked on it nonstop for a week, drilling each of her hands separately, over and over. But whenever we tried putting the hands together, one always morphed into the other, and everything fell apart. Finally, the day before her lesson, Lulu announced in exasperation that she was giving up and stomped off.

“Get back to the piano now,” I ordered.

“You can’t make me.”

“Oh yes, I can.”

Back at the piano, Lulu made me pay. She punched, thrashed and kicked. She grabbed the music score and tore it to shreds. I taped the score back together and encased it in a plastic shield so that it could never be destroyed again. Then I hauled Lulu’s dollhouse to the car and told her I’d donate it to the Salvation Army piece by piece if she didn’t have “The Little White Donkey” perfect by the next day. When Lulu said, “I thought you were going to the Salvation Army, why are you still here?” I threatened her with no lunch, no dinner, no Christmas or Hanukkah presents, no birthday parties for two, three, four years. When she still kept playing it wrong, I told her she was purposely working herself into a frenzy because she was secretly afraid she couldn’t do it. I told her to stop being lazy, cowardly, self-indulgent and pathetic.

Jed took me aside. He told me to stop insulting Lulu—which I wasn’t even doing, I was just motivating her—and that he didn’t think threatening Lulu was helpful. Also, he said, maybe Lulu really just couldn’t do the technique—perhaps she didn’t have the coordination yet—had I considered that possibility?

“You just don’t believe in her,” I accused.

“That’s ridiculous,” Jed said scornfully. “Of course I do.”

“Sophia could play the piece when she was this age.”

“But Lulu and Sophia are different people,” Jed pointed out.

“Oh no, not this,” I said, rolling my eyes. “Everyone is special in their special own way,” I mimicked sarcastically. “Even losers are special in their own special way. Well don’t worry, you don’t have to lift a finger. I’m willing to put in as long as it takes, and I’m happy to be the one hated. And you can be the one they adore because you make them pancakes and take them to Yankees games.”

I rolled up my sleeves and went back to Lulu. I used every weapon and tactic I could think of. We worked right through dinner into the night, and I wouldn’t let Lulu get up, not for water, not even to go to the bathroom. The house became a war zone, and I lost my voice yelling, but still there seemed to be only negative progress, and even I began to have doubts.

Then, out of the blue, Lulu did it. Her hands suddenly came together—her right and left hands each doing their own imperturbable thing—just like that.

Lulu realized it the same time I did. I held my breath. She tried it tentatively again. Then she played it more confidently and faster, and still the rhythm held. A moment later, she was beaming.

“Mommy, look—it’s easy!” After that, she wanted to play the piece over and over and wouldn’t leave the piano. That night, she came to sleep in my bed, and we snuggled and hugged, cracking each other up. When she performed “The Little White Donkey” at a recital a few weeks later, parents came up to me and said, “What a perfect piece for Lulu—it’s so spunky and so her.”

Even Jed gave me credit for that one. Western parents worry a lot about their children’s self-esteem. But as a parent, one of the worst things you can do for your child’s self-esteem is to let them give up. On the flip side, there’s nothing better for building confidence than learning you can do something you thought you couldn’t.

There are all these new books out there portraying Asian mothers as scheming, callous, overdriven people indifferent to their kids’ true interests. For their part, many Chinese secretly believe that they care more about their children and are willing to sacrifice much more for them than Westerners, who seem perfectly content to let their children turn out badly. I think it’s a misunderstanding on both sides. All decent parents want to do what’s best for their children. The Chinese just have a totally different idea of how to do that.

Western parents try to respect their children’s individuality, encouraging them to pursue their true passions, supporting their choices, and providing positive reinforcement and a nurturing environment. By contrast, the Chinese believe that the best way to protect their children is by preparing them for the future, letting them see what they’re capable of, and arming them with skills, work habits and inner confidence that no one can ever take away.

(—Amy Chua is a professor at Yale Law School and author of “Day of Empire” and “World on Fire: How Exporting Free Market Democracy Breeds Ethnic Hatred and Global Instability.” This essay is excerpted from “Battle Hymn of the Tiger Mother” by Amy Chua, to be published Tuesday by the Penguin Press, a member of Penguin Group (USA) Inc. Copyright © 2011 by Amy Chua.)

譯文:中國媽媽何以更優越?

(作者艾米蔡是耶魯大學法學院教授,也是“帝國之日”和“失火的世界”兩本書的作者。本文摘自艾米蔡“母老虎媽媽戰爭之歌”,由企鵝出版社出版,企鵝集團(美國)有限公司版權所有。)

  很多人想知道中國父母如何能養育出那麽成功的孩子。他們想知道這些父母都做了什麽以至于培養出這麽多的數學和音樂神童,他們又有一種怎樣的家庭。這些人很想知道自己是否也能做到這一點。嗯,我可以告訴他們,因爲我已經做到了。這裏有一些我的女兒:索菲亞和路易莎永遠也不被允許做的事情:
  ◆、在外面過夜
  ◆、有一整天的玩樂
  ◆、參加學校整天的玩樂
  ◆、抱怨說沒有參加學校的玩樂
  ◆、看電視或玩電腦遊戲
  ◆、選擇適合自己的課外活動
  ◆、獲得任何A以下的成績
  ◆、不是科目的第一名(體育和戲劇科目除外)
  ◆、彈奏樂曲(鋼琴或小提琴除外)
  ◆、不練習鋼琴或小提琴。
  我籠統使用的這個字眼“中國媽媽”。我知道一些韓國,印度,牙買加,愛爾蘭和加納的父母也同樣合格這個稱號。相反,我知道有些華裔母親,幾乎都是出生在西方,並不符合這個稱謂。我也要用“西方家長”這個術語。這包括形刑種種的西方父母。
  當涉及到育兒,似乎是中國人的孩子展示了卓越的學術成就、音樂技能和事業的成功–所謂的刻板形象。華爾街日報的克裏斯蒂娜崔採訪了兩位中國移民媽媽,分享他們成長的經曆,以及他們如何希望培育自己的孩子。
  即使西方的父母覺得他們對孩子嚴格,那種嚴厲通常與中國媽媽的標准天差地遠。例如,我的西方朋友認爲自己讓孩子每天花30分鍾練習樂器是夠嚴格的了,最多不會超過一小時。可對于一個中國母親,一小時簡直太容易了,兩三個小時都不是艱難的事。
  撇除對文化的成見和過敏,研究顯示中西方之間,當談到中西父母的差異,有著明顯的本質的區別。在一項對美國50個西方母親和48個中國移民的母親調查中,幾乎70%的西方母親說“強調高分對孩子不好”或“父母需要培育孩子學習的樂趣。”相比之下,約0%的中國母親有同感。相反,絕大多數的中國母親說,他們相信他們的子女能夠成爲“最好的”學生,孩子“學習成績反映了爲人父母的成功和失敗”,而如果孩子沒有在學校出類拔萃則是“問題”所在,父母“沒有做好他們自身的工作。”其他研究表明,相對于西方的父母,中國父母大概花約10倍的時間檢查他們的孩子每天相關的學習活動。相比之下,西方的孩子更多地參與體育運動團隊。
  華人父母認爲,沒有任何東西是有趣的,直到你很擅長和掌握自如。任何的掌握自如都需要努力。孩子本身不喜歡辛苦,這就是爲什麽有時至關重要的爲人父母爲孩子做出選擇。這通常需要爲人父母者堅韌不拔的堅持,因爲孩子會頑強地抵制,萬事開頭難,這也是很多西方的父母往往放棄的原因。但是,如果處理得當,中國戰略可以産生了一個良性循環。堅持不懈的實踐、實踐再實踐是最終卓越的關鍵,死記硬背也是美國人低估了的一種功效。一旦孩子開始擅長和運用自如一種東西,無論是數學、鋼琴、投球或芭蕾,他或她得到一致好評、贊賞和自我滿足。這種自信心的建立,使得一度不太有趣的活動成爲樂趣。反過來,這也使得孩子的父母的工作容易得多。
  中國的父母可以做西方父母所不能做的。我年少之時,不止一次當我不尊重我的母親時,我的父親用我們閩南土語生氣地叫我“垃圾”。這種責罵非常管用。我對自己的行爲感到可怕和深深的羞愧。但是,這並不損害我的自尊之類的東西。我清楚地知道他對我抱有的期望。我其實並沒有覺得自己像一堆毫無價值的垃圾。
  作爲一個成年人,我曾經對我的女兒索菲亞做過同樣的事情,當她對我非常無禮的時候,用英語罵她垃圾。當我在一次宴會上提到我那樣做(對我的女兒),我立刻被排斥。瑪西說她太難過了以至于泣不成聲,更不得不不得不提早離開宴會。我的朋友蘇珊,晚會的主人,試圖在留下的客人中爲我平反。
  中國父母可以做一些似乎不可思議的事情,對西方人來說他們甚至可以采取法律行動,。中國媽媽可以對他們的女兒說,“嘿!胖子!該減肥了。”相比之下,西方家長要蹑手蹑腳圍繞這個問題“舞蹈”,用“健康”來引導,永遠不會提胖字,而他們的孩子仍然要在結束飲食失調和負面的自我形象治療之間掙紮。(我也曾經聽到一個西方的父親祝酒他成年的女兒叫她“美麗,令人難以置信的能力。”後來她告訴我,他父親虛假的語言讓她有一種垃圾的感覺。)
  中國的父母可以要求他們的孩子成績拿全A。西方父母只要求他們的孩子盡力就好。中國的父母可以說:“你這懶蟲!你所有的同學都超越你了。”相比之下,西方父母不得不關于成就與自己的沖突的感覺鬥爭,試圖說服他們自己,他們的孩子不理想的成績沒有讓他們失望。
  我想了很久有關華人父母如何能做那些西方父母認爲不可思議的事情。我認爲在西方父母和之間的中國父母之間,存在著三個思想上差異。
  首先,我注意到,西方的父母非常關心孩子的自尊心。他們擔心自己的孩子如果失敗會感覺如何,他們不斷嘗試從正面去安撫他們的孩子,盡管孩子在考試或演奏上表現平平。換言之,西方的父母關心孩子的心理。中國的父母卻不是!他們斷定孩子是堅強的,而不是脆弱的,這兩種假設和斷定結果,導致了非常不一樣的結果。
  例如,如果一個孩子帶著A–的成績單回家,西方家長極有可能表揚孩子。中國媽媽會喘息不順並問出了什麽差錯。如果一個孩子帶著B成績單回家,一些西方父母仍然會稱贊孩子。另一些西方父母坐下來和他們的孩子談話並來表達不滿,但他們要小心,不要讓孩子們感到不適或缺乏安全感,他們不會罵他們的孩子“笨”,“沒用”或“羞恥”。私下裏,西方的父母可能會擔心他們的孩子沒有考好,或者對課程甚至學校産生懷疑。如果孩子的成績沒有改善,他們最終可能安排與該校校長面談,挑戰教學方法和正在執教老師的能力。
  如果中國的孩子獲得了B—這似乎是永遠不會發生的事情,首先會聽到一聲尖叫,仿佛頭髮撕裂爆炸。氣急敗壞的中國媽媽可能以數十個也許上百個練習題和測試給她的孩子,直到他們的孩子拿到A。
  中國家長要求他們的孩子取得完美的成績,因爲他們相信,他們的孩子可以做到。如果他們的孩子沒有得到(完美的成績),中國父母認爲是因爲孩子沒有足夠努力。這就是爲什麽中國父母對孩子不合標准的結果解決方式始終是苛責、懲罰和羞辱。中國父母認爲,他們的孩子足以承擔羞辱並改善不佳。
  其次,中國家長認爲,孩子欠他們的一切。這個原因不明確,但它可能是儒家孝道以及加進去了父母爲孩子的某種犧牲,父母爲孩子做了很多的事情。(的而且確,中國媽媽長期艱苦的奮鬥親自輔導、培訓、審問他們的孩子,有時甚至像從事間諜活動一樣。)據了解,中國孩子必須盡自己的一生償還服從父母,讓他們的父母以此爲榮。
  相比之下,我不認爲大多數西方人的子女有永久地感謝他們的父母的觀點。我的丈夫,傑德,看法剛好相反。“孩子沒有選擇父母的權利,”他曾經對我說。“他們甚至無法選擇出生。是父母強加給他們的孩子生命,所以父母有責任爲他們提供生活所需。孩子不欠父母任何東西。他們的職責將是自己的孩子。”這番話給了我巨大的沖擊。
  第三,中國的父母認爲,他們知道什麽是對他們的孩子來說是最好的,因此他們忽略孩子自身的欲望和喜好。這就是爲什麽中國女兒在高中不能有男朋友,中國的孩子不能去住宿營地。這也是爲什麽中國的孩子永遠不敢對他們的母親說,“我學校有場演出,我演村民第六號,我放學之後要留校,從三點至七點排練,我還需要周末被送過去參加排練。”願上帝幫助中國孩子有勇氣嘗試去那麽做。
  不要誤解我:這並不是說中國的家長不關心他們的子女。恰恰相反,他們會爲了自己的孩子放棄所有。這只是一個完全不同的養育模式。
  在中國,並非所有的愛都以負面的形式出現。問題是:美國父母是否太容易了?這裏有一個中式“強逼”的故事。露露,7歲左右,學習兩種樂器,正在練習鋼琴曲法國作曲家雅克的作品“小白驢”。這首曲子真的很可愛,你可以想像一個小毛驢沿著鄉村道路歡快地前行,但對于初學者也是非常困難彈奏的曲子,因爲兩只手必須同時彈奏不同的節奏。
  露露彈不好。我們曾一個星期不間斷地努力練習,先是兩只手分別進行,一遍又一遍。但每當我們試圖把兩只手放在一起,一只手就會被另一只拖累,然後一切都亂七八糟。最後在她上課的前一天,露露跺著腳惱怒地宣布:她放棄了。
  “你坐回到鋼琴前去。”我命令。
  “你想!”
  “哦,是的,我可以。”
  回到鋼琴前,露露要我付出代價。她拳打腳踢並一把撕碎了樂譜。我把碎片貼到一起到一起,並把它包在一個塑料套裏以防再被摧毀。然後我把Lulu的娃娃屋拖到我的汽車裏,並告訴她,如果她沒能在第二天把“小白驢”彈得很完美,我會把她的娃娃屋一塊一塊捐給救世軍。露露說,“你不是要去救世軍嗎,你爲什麽還在這裏?”我威嚇她她將沒有午飯、沒有晚餐、沒有聖誕節或光明節的禮物,二、三甚至四年內沒有生日派對。當她還是不停地彈錯,我告訴她,她執意讓自己陷入狂亂,因爲她偷偷害怕她做不好。我告訴她不要偷懶,不要懦弱,不要自我放縱和不要自己可憐自己。
  傑德把我拉到一邊。他告訴我要停止侮辱露露,而我什麽都還沒做呢。我只是激勵她,但他不認爲威脅露露是任何益處。他說,也許真的露露做不到那個難度,也許她沒有那種協調能力,我是否考慮過這種可能性?
  “你不相信她,”我指控。
  “可笑!”傑德說,輕蔑地說。“當然我相信她。”
  “索菲亞在這個年齡可以彈奏這個曲子。”
  “但露露和索菲亞是不同的兩個人,”傑德指出。
  “哦,不,不是,”我說,我翻著眼珠:“每個人都是特殊的,”我模仿諷刺。“即使輸家也是以自己特殊方式特別著。好了,別擔心,你不必動一根手指。只要需要我願意面對,我很高興能唱白臉。你可以繼續做他們的偶像,因爲你他們做煎餅,帶他們到洋基隊看比賽。”
  鑽進給爲人父母特制的監獄?我卷起衣袖做一個唱白臉的中國媽媽,我用每一種我能想到的武器和戰術,我和女兒一起努力,到了廢寢忘食的地步,我不會讓露露起身離開鋼琴,即便是喝水甚至不能去衛生間。這所房子變成了戰場,我喊啞了嗓子,但似乎毫無進展,甚至我也開始懷疑。
  然後,烏雲忽然散去,露露彈好了。她的手突然走到了一起,她左右手分別有條不紊的彈奏著,就是這麽簡單。
  露露和我幾乎同時意識到這點。我屏住呼吸。她再次嘗試。然後,她更自信、更快捷地彈奏,那節奏依舊完好。一會兒之後,她是喜上眉梢。
  “媽媽,你看,很容易!”之後,她一遍又一遍地彈奏著,甚至不願離開鋼琴。那天晚上,她來睡在我床上,我們依偎擁抱,互相打趣取笑。幾個星期後,當她在演奏會表演“白色的小驢子”之後,一位家長對我說:“多麽完美的作品,非常的勇敢,那麽有露露的個性!”
  即使傑德也因此給了我贊譽。西方父母過于擔心自己的孩子的自尊心。但作爲父母,你在孩子的自尊心上可以做的最糟糕的事情就是:讓他們放棄。在另一面,沒有什麽比建立自信心和學習做成你原以爲你做不到的事更好的。
  外面世界有很多新書把亞裔母親描繪成陰謀、無情、冷漠到逼迫自己的孩子超負荷的怪物。其實,許多華人暗地裏認爲他們比西方人更關心孩子並更多地願意爲孩子們犧牲自己,誰願意自己的孩子不求上進?我認爲這是一種兩種文化的誤解(或差異)。爲人父母者都是爲了孩子的福祉竭盡所能,華人只不過用了與西方社會截然不同的方式來做到這一點而已。
  西方家長盡量尊重孩子的個性,鼓勵他們追求自己真正的愛好,支持他們的選擇,並提供積極的強化和培育環境。相比之下,中國人認爲,最好的保護自己的孩子的方式是爲他們的未來做充分的准備,讓他們發掘自己的潛能,並用技能、好的工作習慣和發自內心的自信來武裝自己,擁有這一切是任何人無法強取豪奪去的。

Amy Chua with her daughters, Sophia and Louisa.

The Tiger Mother Responds to Readers

On Saturday, Review ran an excerpt from Amy Chua’s new book “Battle Hymn of the Tiger Mother.” The article, titled “Why Chinese Mothers Are Superior,” attracted a lot of attention, generating more than 4,000 comments on wsj.com and around 100,000 comments on Facebook. Below, Ms. Chua answers questions from Journal readers who wrote in to the Ideas Market blog.

Do you think that strict, “Eastern” parenting eventually helps children lead happy lives as adults?

When it works well, absolutely! And by working well, I mean when high expectations are coupled with love, understanding and parental involvement. This is the gift my parents gave me, and what I hope I’m giving my daughters. I’ve also taught law students of all backgrounds for 17 years, and I’ve met countless students raised the “tough immigrant” way (by parents from Pakistan, India, Nigeria, Korea, Jamaica, Haiti, Iran, Ireland, etc.) who are thriving, independent, bold, creative, hilarious and, at least to my eyes, as happy as anyone. But I also know of people raised with “tough love” who are not happy and who resent their parents. There is no easy formula for parenting, no right approach (I don’t believe, by the way, that Chinese parenting is superior—a splashy headline, but I didn’t choose it). The best rule of thumb I can think of is that love, compassion and knowing your child have to come first, whatever culture you’re from. It doesn’t come through in the excerpt, but my actual book is not a how-to guide; it’s a memoir, the story of our family’s journey in two cultures, and my own eventual transformation as a mother. Much of the book is about my decision to retreat from the strict “Chinese” approach, after my younger daughter rebelled at 13.

I have a 20-month-old, and my husband and I both enjoyed the article. How can you apply this to toddlers?

We didn’t actually do anything that different when my daughters were toddlers, just the same kinds of things that you probably do already: read picture books with them, took them for strolls and to the playground, did puzzles with them, sang songs about ABCs and numbers and mainly snuggled with and hugged them! Maybe the only thing different I did is that I always had a babysitter or student speaking in Mandarin to them every day, for at least four to five hours, including weekends, because I wanted my girls to be bilingual. (I wanted my daughters to learn from native Mandarin speakers, because my own native Chinese dialect is Fujianese [Hokkien], and my Mandarin accent is terrible.)

Your method may work with children with a native high IQ—but demanding that kind of excellence from less intelligent children seems unfair and a fool’s errand. Demanding hard work and a great effort from children is the best middle ground we can reach philosophically, isn’t it? Your thoughts?

Jokes about A+s and gold medals aside (much of my book is tongue-in-cheek, making fun of myself), I don’t believe that grades or achievement is ultimately what Chinese parenting (at least as I practice it) is really about. I think it’s about helping your children be the best they can be—which is usually better than they think! It’s about believing in your child more than anyone else—even more than they believe in themselves. And this principle can be applied to any child, of any level of ability. My youngest sister, Cindy, has Down syndrome, and I remember my mother spending hours and hours with her, teaching her to tie her shoelaces on her own, drilling multiplication tables with Cindy, practicing piano every day with her. No one expected Cindy to get a PhD! But my mom wanted her to be the best she could be, within her limits. Today, my sister works at Wal-Mart, has a boyfriend and still plays piano—one of her favorite things is performing for her friends. She and my mom have a wonderful relationship, and we all love her for who she is.

Ms. Chua, are you a happy adult? Do you look back on your childhood and feel that it was happy? Do you remember laughing with your parents? Do you wish that you could have taken ballet or been in the high school musical?

I was raised by extremely strict—but also extremely loving—Chinese immigrant parents, and I had the most wonderful childhood! I remember laughing constantly with my parents—my dad is a real character and very funny. I certainly did wish they allowed to me do more things! I remember often thinking, “Why is it such a big deal for me to go to a school dance,” or “Why can’t I go on the school ski trip?” But on the other hand, I had great times with my family (and even today, it’s one of my favorite things to vacation with my parents and sisters). As I write in my book, “When my friends hear stories about when I was little, they often imagine that I had a horrible childhood. But that’s not true at all; I found strength and confidence in my peculiar family. We started off as outsiders together, and we discovered America together, becoming Americans in the process. I remember my father working until three in the morning every night, so driven he wouldn’t even notice us entering the room. But I also remember how excited he was introducing us to tacos, sloppy joes, Dairy Queen and eat-all-you-can buffets, not to mention sledding, skiing, crabbing and camping. I remember a boy in grade school making slanty-eyed gestures at me, guffawing as he mimicked the way I pronounced “restaurant” (rest-OW-rant)—I vowed at that moment to rid myself of my Chinese accent. But I also remember Girl Scouts and hula hoops; poetry contests and public libraries; winning a Daughters of the American Revolution essay contest; and the proud, momentous day my parents were naturalized.”

And yes, I am a happy adult. I am definitely a Type A personality, always rushing around, trying to do too much, not good at just lying on the beach. But I’m so thankful for everything I have: wonderfully supportive parents and sisters, the best husband in the world, terrific students I love teaching and hanging out with, and above all, my two amazing daughters.

What is your relationship with your daughters like now?

I have a wonderful relationship with my daughters, which I wouldn’t trade for the world. I certainly made mistakes and have regrets—my book is a kind of coming-of-age book (for the mom!), and the person at the beginning of the book, whose voice is reflected in the Journal excerpt, is not exactly the same person at the end of book. In a nutshell, I get my comeuppance; much of the book is about my decision to retreat (but only partially) from the strict immigrant model. Having said that, if I had to do it all over, I would do basically the same thing, with some adjustments. I’m not saying it’s for everyone, and I’m not saying it’s a better approach. But I’m very proud of my daughters. It’s not just that they’ve done well in school; they are both kind, generous, independent girls with big personalities. Most important, I feel I’m very close with both of them, knock on wood.

Tiger mom's memoir meets ferocious roar

Tiger mom’s memoir meets ferocious roar

By LEANNE ITALIE
The Associated Press
Thursday, January 13, 2011; 8:31 PM

— A new memoir of bad-ass parenting, Chinese style, from a self-proclaimed tiger mother has unleashed a ferocious roar.

Fallout was swift for Yale law professor Amy Chua after she published a stark essay in The Wall Street Journal describing the harsh words and heavy handed methods she used with her two teen daughters.

Her “Battle Hymn of the Tiger Mother” shot to No. 6 in the Amazon sales rankings Tuesday, the day it was released, likely fueled by angry buzz over the weekend column and a headline Chua had nothing to do with: “Why Chinese Mothers are Superior.”

Adult offspring of Asian and Asian American immigrants are weighing in on Chua’s provocative description of Eastern-style parenting: No sleepovers or playdates. Grueling rote academics. Hours of piano and violin practice. Slurs like “lazy” and “garbage,” and threats to burn stuffed animals when things don’t go mom’s way.

Some see truth and a borderline abuser. Others see dangerous stereotype with the potential to feed China haters and xenophobes. Still others publicly thanked their moms online for similar, though less extreme, methods.

Few had read the book themselves, missing out on more facetious nuances and details on Chua’s journey to a softer approach with Sophia, 18, and Louisa, nicknamed Lulu and about to celebrate her 15th birthday with – gasp – a sleepover party.

“It’s been tough on my kids,” Chua said Wednesday. “They want to speak out over the thing that has hurt me the most, when people say, `Oh, doesn’t that kind of strict parenting produce meek robots?’ My daughters could not be further from meek robots. They’re confident, funny, kind, generous, with very big personalities, and they’re always calling my bluff.”

Chua, 48 and the daughter of Filipino immigrants of Chinese descent, insists her tone in the book is self-deprecating. It’s a point she considers lost in the blogosphere, including heat from moms employing current Western philosophies she doesn’t consider better or worse, but more lax and undisciplined.

“My first reaction was, `Is this a joke?’ I kept waiting for the punch line,” said Frances Kai-Hwa Wang, 44, a second-generation Chinese American and mother of four in Ann Arbor, Mich. She had parents with high expectations but none of Chua’s histrionics. “Her methods are so crude. The humiliations and the shaming. The kids will hear that voice in their heads for the rest of their lives.”

Christine Lu’s memories of her tiger mom growing up in Los Angeles are laden with sorrow. Mom’s ramrod tactics failed on her (“life at home used to be horrible”) but they worked on her older sister. She hit 28 and spiraled into a depression that led to her suicide after the startup where she worked fizzled.

“She graduated from Harvard with an MBA. That was the first time she had ever experienced failure,” said the 34-year-old Lu, who was born in Taiwan and moved to LA with her parents and three siblings at age 2.

She stopped short of blaming her mom, adding: “It’s the culture. Amy is a product of the culture, too.”

It’s a book of extreme parenting, for sure, a memoir and not a how-to manual, Chua cautions. Her parenting choices were conscious and reflect her upbringing: No TV, no pets, no computer games, no grades under A, no parts in school plays, no complaints about not having parts in school plays, no choice of extracurricular activities, nothing less than top spots in any school class except gym and drama, no musical instruments except piano or violin.

When Lulu had trouble with a tricky piece of music, Chua denied her bathroom breaks and threatened to ship off her dollhouse to the Salvation Army, piece by piece, until she got it right – which she did with pride, mom at her side.

When she pushed back at age 13, rejecting the violin, mom allowed for tennis instead, keeping a keen eye on her game.

Betty Ming Liu, 54, grew up in New York City’s Chinatown, the oldest of two girls of Chinese immigrants with high expectations and abusive tactics.

“This is a topic so close to my heart,” she said. “It’s frightening to see that Amy Chua is still doing it. She’s young. She’s educated. She’s American born. She’s not an immigrant and for her to perpetuate this … is frightening.”

As a young adult, Chua said she rebelled in her own way. She married a white, American Orthodox Jew after hearing from her dad: “‘You’ll marry a non-Chinese over my dead body.’ Now my dad and my husband are the best of friends.”

Liu and Chua alike acknowledge that the tiger mom parenting approach isn’t uniquely Chinese, “but we’ve perfected it,” Liu said. “I got straight Ds in college. That was my only power over my father.”

Growing up in California’s Marin County, Tony Hsieh’s parents forced him to play four instruments. He’d sometimes cheat on practices by recording previous turns at the piano or violin and playing them back while his parents slept. Practice exams for the SAT began in middle school.

Hsieh graduated from Harvard in 1995, co-founded an Internet ad network sold to Microsoft and is now CEO of the online shoe retailer Zappos. He published a memoir of his road to success, “Delivering Happiness,” last year. What he didn’t do was become was a doctor, a top prize to his parents.

“For myself personally, I think I would have benefited from a less strict parenting style, because a big part of being an entrepreneur is about being creative, thinking outside the box, defying conventional wisdom, taking risks, which runs counter to the values of many Asian parents,” he said.

Shay Fan, 26, in San Francisco, didn’t rip up sheets of music like one of Chua’s girls, but she once protested piano by playing with her feet and paid for it with a fierce spanking.

“I understand her motives,” she said of Chua. “Is there a limit to what parents should do? Absolutely. Chua’s method of parenting worked for her children, lucky for her, but you have to take things by a case by case basis. … Overall, I’m glad that my mom taught me to be diligent and introspective.”

And Wendy Lin, 55, who remembers yelling and screaming over her perceived laziness as a child, appreciates Chua’s resolve to dive into the trenches with her kids.

“She was with them every inch of the way. I thought that was really touching,” said Lin, who is parenting her 15-year-old son more gently in Great Neck, N.Y. “A lot of mothers would just shout from the next room.”

Chua stands by much of her tiger mom ways: intense attention to academics, for instance. And she has some clarifications: Her girls HAVE had sleepovers and playdates, but they were few and far between.

Regrets? “I wish I hadn’t lost my temper,” she said. “I wish I hadn’t been harsh. I wish I would have let them have more freedom.”

Chua considers it a luxury to get to make those choices. Lin understands that in terms of her own parents.

“As an immigrant parent, there aren’t a lot of tools you can give your children. You’re very powerless in the system. You’re very powerless when it comes to language,” Lin said. “One of the things that you can do is make sure your kids have a good education and make sure they get into a good school, and after that you can finally rest and take a breath.”

我想打破亚裔富不过三代的魔咒

  新年伊始,亚裔虎妈、美国耶鲁大学教授蔡美儿制定十条家规、采用高压手段管教女儿的故事,引发了中美育儿理念的大讨论——美国一些媒体认为,在教育子女方面,中国母亲的严格教育方式似乎更见成效。正在素质教育之路上蹒跚起步的中国母亲们则开始困惑,宽松的家庭氛围,不是更能培养孩子的创造力么。
  蔡美儿为何要采取这种教育方式?严厉的管教背后,她如何保护和培养孩子的创造力?
  近日,通过电邮、电话等方式,本报对话亚裔虎妈、美国耶鲁大学教授蔡美儿。

★ “有些词语,看上去很严厉,其实我是想幽默地表达这个育儿的过程。”
  时报:“虎妈”这个称呼是谁给你的?为什么这么叫你?
  虎妈:我对女儿要求严格,她们有时受不了,背着我叫我“母老虎”“伏地魔”。我先生杰德觉得我过于苛责,认为我的要求太高太强硬,让家里太紧张,不自由。他们不满时或开玩笑时,就喊我“虎妈”或“伏地魔”。
  时报:你怎么看这个称号?
  虎妈:我喜欢这称号。
  时报:我在网上看到,你的育儿经验最近引发了中美教育方式的讨论。有一些人因此认为中国妈妈的教育方式强过了美国妈妈。
  虎妈:月初,一家报纸报道了我严厉教育女儿的事。我的邮箱收到了300多封信,不少是指责我的教育方式极端残酷,没有人性。1月8日,美国一家纸媒将标题做成了“为什么中国妈妈比美国妈妈更优秀”。再后来,《时代》又发文分析称美国父母是不是该思考自己是个“失败者”。
  其实,这不是我的初衷,媒体的有些报道是断章取义,让大家误读了我的教育观。最近我一直在澄清:我是一位华裔妈妈,用我所受的中国式教育管教了两个孩子,并记录了这个育儿经历,仅此而已。其中所使用的一些词语,看上去有些严厉,其实我是想幽默地表达这个育儿的过程。

★ “你是否有更好的教育方法?没有,请配合我。”
  时报:你怎么严厉教育你的女儿?
  虎妈:我给两个女儿制定了10条清规戒律。在学习上,我不准她们任何一门成绩低于“A”。
  我的大女儿索菲娅五年级时,有次乘法速算测试得了第二。接下来我每晚让她做20张试卷,每张100道速算题,我在一旁掐着秒表计时。一周强化训练后,索菲娅次次稳拿第一。小女儿露露有次没做考试加分题,我告诉她家教良好的孩子都应做加分题,正是这些实实在在的分数将优秀和平庸区别开来。从此,露露再也没放弃过加分题。
  时报:有人反对你的这种教育方式吗?
  虎妈:在美国社会,按照中国人的方式教孩子,会面对各种各样的冲突,这是一场持久战,攻坚战。
  时报:你丈夫同意你这么做么?
  虎妈:我在家里并不占优势,我丈夫杰德就是一个有犹太血统的美国人,要求我不要太严。我和他签协议让他不要干预我对孩子进行中国式教育,我问他,你是否有更好的教育方法?没有,请配合我。
  时报:这种教育的效果怎样?
  虎妈:两个女儿保持着门门功课皆“A”的全优纪录。索菲娅18个月就认字母表,3岁阅读《小妇人》,开始弹钢琴,14岁就在卡内基音乐大厅弹钢琴。露露练小提琴,12岁成为耶鲁青年管弦乐团首席小提琴手。有人称她们是“音乐神童”。成年后,露露改打网球,裁判评价她“是那种不付出110%的努力决不罢休的小姑娘”。

★ “当她已经长大时,我应该把一些选择权还给她,让她做真正喜欢的事。”
  时报:有人对你不让女儿参加同伴聚会不理解,不应鼓励孩子参加社会活动吗?
  虎妈:不参加玩伴聚会,是因为时间很宝贵,会耽误练琴时间。有一次,索菲娅一直央求说她想参加最好朋友的生日聚会,我心一软就答应了。可第二天早上她到家,很累,焦躁,也没心练琴了。一盘问才知道,她一整晚都在听一位同学谈论对性的神秘尝试。我后悔让孩子接触这类糟粕聚会。我认为,没必要让孩子犯了错误再学习。
  时报:孩子们不听怎么办?
  虎妈:小孩子的天性就是喜欢玩,她们抵制学习、练琴这类枯燥的事。
  我和露露的第一次冲突发生在一个天寒地冻的下午,那时她才3岁。我要求她练琴,结果她连打带踹,又哭又闹,我忍无可忍将她拖到门外。也许是为了表示反抗,索菲娅还偷着将钢琴咬得到处是牙印。当她们不好好练琴时,我会威胁她们不准吃饭,要烧掉其所有的绒毛玩具,骂她们“垃圾”。
  我每时每分都得软硬兼施,用尽了咒骂、威胁、贿赂、利诱等一切办法,让她们做一些现在不乐意、但将来有益处的事情。
  时报:你会退让么?
  虎妈:要视情况来定。有一次我们到俄罗斯旅行。在一家咖啡馆内,我让露露尝一粒鱼子酱,她不同意。面对我的坚持,她发疯似的说我令人恐怖,要她做地这一切实际上是为我自己!她讨厌小提琴,憎恨这个家,并抓起玻璃杯砸碎在地上,发誓称如果我不放过她,她就要砸掉所有的杯子!
  我最终想清楚,当她已经长大时,我应该把一些选择权还给她,让她做自己真正喜欢的事。这样的事情以后还有很多次,比如说,我同意露露辞去首席小提琴手的职务,改打自己喜欢的网球。

★ “我想打破亚裔富不过三代的魔咒。”
  时报:什么原因令你对女儿如此严格?
  虎妈:我想有两点。一是我自小接受中国式教育。我认为,这种严厉的教育可以培养孩子坚持不懈的品质。二是我害怕两个女儿走下坡路。
  在美国,亚裔移民有“富不过三代”的魔咒:一代移民终于实现了“美国梦”,会省吃俭用,将所挣的每一分钱和巨大的精力投资在孩子的教育上。第二代移民因父母的巨大投入而相对优秀,但他们教育孩子也因此不太严厉了。第三代移民的生活很舒适,有一群成绩B+的朋友,认为个人权利受宪法保护,不愿付出辛苦,就会走下坡路。
  我父母是中国人,他们先是移民菲律宾,上世纪六十年代又举家移民美国。我是移民二代,我想打破亚裔富不过三代的“魔咒”。
  时报:你小时候父母如何教育你?
  虎妈:我父母对我很严格。8年级时我历史考了第二名,颁奖仪式结束后,父亲说“千万不要再让我像这样丢脸了”。在家里说中国话时不小心夹杂了一个英语单词,就要被狠狠打手板。
  我当时也经常抱怨,我的事为什么他们老做主。这事在我申请读大学时得到了解决。父母坚持让我读加州大学伯克利分校,说离家近,可以住家里。我想摆脱“虎笼”,于是就瞒着父亲,伪造了他的签字悄悄申请了哈佛大学并被录取。父亲为此折腾了整整一宿,一边因我违抗父命大发雷霆,一边又为我考取哈佛而骄傲。
  时报:现在回头看,有没有不喜欢的地方?
  虎妈:回头看,我很理解、也很感激父母。我相信,我的孩子最终也会理解我。

★ “西式教育过于强调‘创意’,排斥纪律、刻苦等旨在培养毅力的东西,中国教育过于强调后者而忽视前者。”
  时报:大家担心,严苛的教育会夺走孩子的快乐童年。你怎么看这个观点?
  虎妈:我们还有其他快乐时光。练完琴后,我们有很多快乐的话题,会趴在床上读书,会一起做有创意的中国菜。我丈夫会带领一
  家人骑车旅行,教孩子们游泳、玩扑克,朗读文学作品。我们一家到过伦敦、巴黎、罗马等几十个国家和城市。当然,根据“家规”,我会提前预约好琴房,以免孩子们生疏了琴艺。
  时报:你觉得,中西方妈妈教育孩子的方式有什么不同?
  虎妈:我注意到,西方父母在意孩子的自尊和心理感受,对孩子的学习没有过多要求。中国妈妈看重孩子考了多少分,排在第几名,会为孩子报很多课外班,督促其超过其他孩子。西式教育让孩子自由,有创造力和想象力,但也直接造成孩子关注吃喝玩乐、看影碟电视、不勤奋上进、遇到问题退缩等种种问题。中式教育方式能通过大量的训练使孩子强化意志力,能培养良好的学习习惯。
  时报:你的观点是什么?
  虎妈:我认为,我这种外人眼中有些严苛的教育,实质上是掌握孩子人生的最初“选择权”。孩子年幼时,不了解社会,也不可能会有明智、成熟的选择,需要家长为其做出正确的“选择”,家长要负起这个责任,督促孩子去实现这个“选择”。随着孩子逐渐成熟,有了自己做出选择的能力,家长就应该放手给孩子。
  时报:你认为,你的哪些观点可供中国妈妈借鉴?
  虎妈:我很高兴,中国妈妈们已经注意到素质教育,并寻找方法培养孩子们更多的创造力。对孩子来说,创造力确实很宝贵,但没有严苛教育培养出来的基本学术能力、坚持不懈的性格基础,也不会有脱颖而出的创造力。
  我个人认为,西式教育过于强调“创意”,排斥纪律、刻苦钻研等旨在培养毅力的东西,中国教育却过于强调后者而忽视前者。现实中,双方都把这个关系摆成了“要么/或”的关系,其实,这是一个“既/和”的关系,两种教育方式应达到一个理想的平衡状态,孩子才会长成我们期待的那样。

★ 人物 “虎妈”蔡美儿
  蔡美儿,英文名Amy Lynn Chua,女,1962年生,祖籍福建。其父获麻省理工学院博士,就职于加利福尼亚大学。蔡美儿幼年随父母移民美国,获哈佛大学文学学士、法学博士,现任耶鲁大学法学院终身教授。
  蔡美儿为两个女儿制定十大戒律,自称“采用咒骂、威胁、贿赂、利诱等种种高压手段,要求孩子沿着父母为其选择的道路努力”。
 ◆不准在外面过夜
 ◆不准参加玩伴聚会
 ◆不准在学校里卖弄琴艺
 ◆不准抱怨不能在学校里演奏
 ◆不准经常看电视或玩电脑游戏
 ◆不准选择自己喜欢的课外活动
 ◆不准任何一门功课的学习成绩低于“A”
 ◆不准在体育和文艺方面拔尖,其他科目平平
 ◆不准演奏其他乐器而不是钢琴和小提琴
 ◆不准在某一天没有练习钢琴或小提琴

Written by Boathill

2011-01-13 at 21:00

Posted in digest, News

Brain injuries

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According to this news, “About 1.7 million people in the United States suffer traumatic brain injuries every year, with about 20 percent of them caused by violence, including gunshots. About 52,000 people die as a result of their injuries and about 275,000 are hospitalized, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Of the deaths caused by traumatic brain injury, perhaps 35 percent to 40 percent are attributed to gunshots.”

繙譯:
  美國每年大約有一百七十万人受到腦部創傷,其中有百分之二十(約三十四万)來源於暴力,包括槍擊。這些創傷造成五萬兩千人致死,而有二十七万五千人留院治療(【註】二十七万五千加上五萬兩千,是三十二万兩千。這兩個數字是相應於一百七十万腦部創傷人的總數,還是那百分之二十的暴力致傷人數?看起來是前者,那麽大約百分之八十的人屬於治癒出院)。在致死的人中,有百分之三十五(一萬八千二百人)到百分之四十(兩萬零八百人),是來源於槍擊。

  另據二零零八年的一份資料顯示:每年超過十萬人(包括兩萬多兒童和少年)受到槍擊,其中三萬多人(包括三千兩百多兒童和少年)死亡。但搜索不到其他年份的準確數據。如果以此對比上面腦受傷致死的資料,大約三分之二的人是被命中腦部而死亡。

Written by Boathill

2011-01-11 at 09:38

Posted in News

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